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A methodology has been developed for the study of molecular recognition at the level of single events and for the localization of sites on biosurfaces, in combining force microscopy with molecular recognition by specific ligands. For this goal, a sensor was designed by covalently linking an antibody (anti-human serum albumin, polyclonal) via a flexible(More)
Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. In physiological buffer, the(More)
Demyelination of the cerebellum is a well-known phenomenon in human multiple sclerosis (MS). Concordantly, patients with MS frequently developed symptoms deriving from cerebellar lesions, i.e., dysmetria leading to hand dexterity impairment. Important advances in MS research have been made as a direct or indirect consequence of the establishment of adequate(More)
Cytidinediphosphate diacylglycerol synthase (CDS) catalyzes the formation of cytidinediphosphate diacylglycerol, an essential precursor of anionic phosphoglycerolipids like phosphatidylglycerol or -inositol. In plant cells, CDS isozymes are located in plastids, mitochondria, and microsomes. Here, we show that these isozymes are encoded by five genes in(More)
Modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by tonic elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ was investigated in intact cells and inside-out patches from human umbilical vein smooth muscle. Ba2+ was used as charge carrier, and run down of Ca2+ channel activity in inside-out patches was prevented with calpastatin plus ATP. Increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+ in intact cells by(More)
In recent years observations at the level of individual atoms and molecules became possible by microscopy and spectroscopy. Imaging of single fluorescence molecules has been achieved but has so far been restricted to molecules in the immobile state. Here we provide methodology for visualization of the motion of individual fluorescent molecules. It is(More)
Autoantibodies against the epidermal desmosomal cadherins desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and Dsg3 have been shown to cause severe to lethal skin blistering clinically defined as pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV). It is unknown whether antibody-induced dissociation of keratinocytes is caused by direct inhibition of Dsg1 transinteraction or by(More)
Animals have evolved adhesive structures on their legs to cling to the substrate during locomotion. Here we characterise the ultrastructure and mechanical properties of adhesive pads in Carausius morosus (Phasmatodea) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The smooth adhesive arolium has a(More)
Cadherins are Ca(2+)-dependent transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate cell-cell adhesion and are important for the structural integrity of epithelia. LI-cadherin and the classical E-cadherin are the predominant two cadherins in the intestinal epithelium. LI-cadherin consists of seven extracellular cadherin repeats and a short cytoplasmic part that does(More)
This study was undertaken to provide a biophysical basis for the hypothesis that activity-dependent modulation of cadherin-mediated adhesion by transient changes of extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]e) is causally involved in coordination of synaptic plasticity. Characterization of homophilic N-cadherin binding by atomic force microscopy and laser tweezer(More)