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Several lines of evidence indicate that remyelination represents one of the most effective mechanisms to achieve axonal protection. For reasons that are not yet understood, this process is often incomplete or fails in multiple sclerosis (MS). Activated astrocytes appear to be able to boost or inhibit endogenous repair processes. A better understanding of(More)
Demyelination of the cerebellum is a well-known phenomenon in human multiple sclerosis (MS). Concordantly, patients with MS frequently developed symptoms deriving from cerebellar lesions, i.e., dysmetria leading to hand dexterity impairment. Important advances in MS research have been made as a direct or indirect consequence of the establishment of adequate(More)
Modulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by tonic elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ was investigated in intact cells and inside-out patches from human umbilical vein smooth muscle. Ba2+ was used as charge carrier, and run down of Ca2+ channel activity in inside-out patches was prevented with calpastatin plus ATP. Increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+ in intact cells by(More)
BACKGROUND Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the(More)
This study was undertaken to provide a biophysical basis for the hypothesis that activity-dependent modulation of cadherin-mediated adhesion by transient changes of extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]e) is causally involved in coordination of synaptic plasticity. Characterization of homophilic N-cadherin binding by atomic force microscopy and laser tweezer(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a quantitative MR imaging technique often used to complement conventional MR imaging with specific metabolic information. A key metabolite is the amino acid derivative N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) which is an accepted marker to measure the extent of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. NAA is(More)
Multiple sclerosis is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults affecting more than two million people worldwide. Although multiple sclerosis is generally considered as white matter disease, distinct pathological alterations are also found in the grey matter. Involvement of basal ganglia seems to be related to a set of symptoms such as(More)
Memory impairment is outstanding within the spectrum of cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Demyelination has been reported in the hippocampus formation of MS patients. The degree of hippocampus lesions in MS strongly correlates with progression of cognitive dysfunction. Because no appropriate animal model for the study of hippocampus(More)
Animals have evolved adhesive structures on their legs to cling to the substrate during locomotion. Here we characterise the ultrastructure and mechanical properties of adhesive pads in Carausius morosus (Phasmatodea) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The smooth adhesive arolium has a(More)
TRPC4 is well recognized as a prominent cation channel in the vascular endothelium, but its contribution to agonist-induced endothelial Ca(2+) entry is still a matter of controversy. Here we report that the cellular targeting and Ca(2+) signaling function of TRPC4 is determined by the state of cell-cell adhesions during endothelial phenotype transitions.(More)