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Apoptosis is executed by caspases, which undergo proteolytic activation in response to cell death stimuli. The apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1) controls caspase activation downstream of mitochondria. During apoptosis, Apaf-1 binds to cytochrome c and in the presence of ATP/dATP forms an apoptosome, leading to the recruitment and activation of(More)
The ubiquitin-specific processing protease (UBP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes. HAUSP, a representative UBP, specifically deubiquitinates and hence stabilizes the tumor suppressor protein p53. Here, we report the crystal structures of the 40 kDa catalytic core domain of HAUSP in isolation and in(More)
The Ski family of nuclear oncoproteins represses TGF-beta signaling through interactions with the Smad proteins. The crystal structure of the Smad4 binding domain of human c-Ski in complex with the MH2 domain of Smad4 reveals specific recognition of the Smad4 L3 loop region by a highly conserved interaction loop (I loop) from Ski. The Ski binding surface on(More)
The therapeutic utility of siRNAs is limited by the requirement for complex formulations to deliver them to tissues. If potent single-stranded RNAs could be identified, they would provide a simpler path to pharmacological agents. Here, we describe single-stranded siRNAs (ss-siRNAs) that silence gene expression in animals absent lipid formulation. Effective(More)
—The bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying in Rayleigh fading, using the Alamouti transmission scheme and receiver selection diversity in the presence of channel-estimation error, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the BER of log-likelihood ratio selection, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) selection, switch-and-stay combining selection, and(More)
Selenium (Se) has been widely reported to possess anti-tumor effects. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels and is required to supply oxygen, nutrients, and growth factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. To explore whether the anti-tumor effect of Se was associated with angiogenesis in vivo, we studied the effects of sodium(More)