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In the leaves of rice (Oryza sativa), stomatal initials arose from two asymmetric cell divisions and a symmetric division. Guard mother cells (GMCs) and long cells in stomatal files (LCSs) were formed through the first asymmetric division of the precursor cell of GMCs. Subsidiary cells (SCs) were produced by the second asymmetric division of subsidiary(More)
The fish reproductive axis is regulated by many neuroendocrine factors. However, factors involved in the suppression of this axis are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we describe a novel neuropeptide derived from the spexin precursor acting as a negative factor to suppress the reproductive axis in teleost. The cDNA sequences of the spexin precursors(More)
Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) plays an important role in regulating of reproduction in teleosts. To clarify the mode of action of GnIH on the synthesis of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotrophin (GtH), three GnIHR cDNAs were cloned from the goldfish brain. In situ hybridization results showed that GnIHRs were localized to the(More)
Tachykinins are a family of peptides that are conserved from invertebrates to mammals. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of tachykinin (TAC) and tachykinin receptor (TACR) genes in vertebrates, especially in the teleost group. In the present study, five TACs and six TACRs genes were identified in the zebrafish genome. Genomic synteny(More)
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been shown to inhibit reproduction in several species. GnIH suppresses gonadotropin synthesis/release at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels; however, increasing evidence suggests that GnIH has a putative function in the gonad. In this study, we demonstrated that GnIH receptors localize to the ovary and testis in(More)
Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tackykinin (TAC) family known to play a critical role in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in mammals. However, its biological functions in teleosts are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NKB in fish reproduction using goldfish as a model. Two transcripts, TAC3a and TAC3b, which(More)
This work aims at establishing a simple fluorescent probe for the determination of dissolved oxygen. It is found that iron(II) ions activate oxygen to produce reactive species being capable of oxidizing non-fluorescent coumarin to fluorescent 7-hydroxycoumarin. However, this process is not effective because the yield of the reactive species is very low in(More)
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) plays a critical role in regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin hormone, and steroidogenesis in teleosts. In the present study, we sought to determine whether 17β-estradiol (E2) acts directly on GnIH neurons to regulate reproduction in goldfish, a seasonal breeder, and we investigated the role of(More)
In the present study, the first full-length cDNA encoding Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the brain of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). The open reading frame of Japanese eel NPY gene is 294 bp in length, encoding a precursor protein of 97 amino acids, which contains a 36-amino-acid mature peptide. Sequence analysis showed that the Japanese eel NPY(More)
Neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor, NK3R, play critical roles in reproduction by regulating the secretion of the hypothalamic GnRH. NKB and NK3R genes are also expressed in the ovary; however, their physiological roles within the ovary are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether NKB acts directly on the ovary to regulate reproduction.(More)
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