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To delineate the relationship between epigenetic modifications and hemoglobin switching, we compared the pattern of histone acetylation and pol II binding across the beta-globin locus at fetal and adult stages of human development. To make this comparison possible, we introduced an external control into experimental samples in chromatin immunoprecipitation(More)
In transient transfection assays deletions, insertions, or truncations are broadly used to define cis regulatory elements, such as promoters, enhancers, and silencers. This application is based on the assumption that size changes of a test fragment have little or no effect on the apparent activity of the reporter genes. While it is known that unusually(More)
SSOs (single-stranded oligonucleotides) can mediate site-specific alteration of base-pairs in episomal and chromosomal target genes in mammalian cells. The TNE (targeted nucleotide exchange) can result in either repair or mutation of a gene sequence and is mediated through endogenous DNA repair pathway(s). Thus the approach provides a technique for the(More)
We examined the role and molecular mechanism of cADPR action on Ca(2+) spark properties in mouse bladder smooth muscle. Dialysis of cADPR with patch pipettes increased frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient out currents (STOCs) to 6.1+/-0.87 currents/min from 1.2+/-0.36 currents/min (control) and to 179.8+/-48.7pA from 36.4+/-22.6pA (control),(More)
Previous studies have suggested that juxtaposition of a downstream enhancer to the fetal gamma-globin gene results in reactivation of the gamma-gene in adult erythrocytes of individuals with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). To test the hypothesis in a much stricter basis, we produced beta locus YAC transgenic mice carrying an exact beta(More)
FK506 binding protein 12.6 kDa (FKBP12.6), a protein that regulates ryanodine Ca(2+) release channels, may act as an important regulator of insulin secretion. In this study, the role of FKBP12.6 in the control of insulin secretion and blood glucose is clarified using FKBP12.6(-/-) mice. FKBP12.6(-/-) mice showed significant fed hyperinsulinemia but(More)
High-level transcription of the globin genes requires the enhancement by a distant element, the locus control region (LCR). Such long-range regulation in vivo involves spatial interaction between transcriptional elements, with intervening chromatin looping out. It has been proposed that the clustering of the HS sites of the LCR, the active globin genes, as(More)
Extracellular ATP (eATP) induces an intracellular Ca(2+) transient by activating phospholipase C (PLC)-associated P2X4 purinergic receptors, leading to production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and subsequent Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4 AM,(More)
Non-coding exons of epsilon-globin mRNA originating within the 236 kb upstream region of the epsilon-globin gene were identified in human primary tissues and K562 cells. One predominant type of upstream epsilon mRNA, which originated in the -76 kb region 5' to the epsilon gene, was present in human primary tissues, whereas 11 other isoforms were identified(More)
The beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is able to enhance the expression of all globin genes throughout the course of development. However, the chromatin structure of the LCR at the different developmental stages is not well defined. We report DNase I and micrococcal nuclease hypersensitivity, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses for histones H2A,(More)