Wai T Wong12
Shu-Zhen Wang12
Run-Tao Yan9
Robert N Fariss8
12Wai T Wong
12Shu-Zhen Wang
9Run-Tao Yan
8Robert N Fariss
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Age-related macular degeneration is an outer retinal disease that involves aging and immune dysfunction. In the aging retina, microglia aggregate in the outer retina and acquire intracellular autofluorescent lipofuscin deposits. In this study, we investigated whether accumulation of A2E, a key bisretinoid constituent of ocular lipofuscin, alters the(More)
Photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina are light-sensitive neurons, and their degeneration results in irreversible visual loss. Understanding how photoreceptor fate is determined is a prerequisite for developing photoreceptor replacement therapies. Previous studies identified two basic helix-loop-helix genes, neurogenin2 (ngn2) and neuroD, participating in(More)
PURPOSE Microglia in the central nervous system display a marked structural dynamism in their processes in the resting state. This dynamic behavior, which may play a constitutive surveying role in the uninjured neural parenchyma, is also highly responsive to tissue injury. The role of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor expressed in microglia, in regulating(More)
PURPOSE Microglia and Müller cells are prominent participants in retinal responses to injury and disease that shape eventual tissue adaptation or damage. This investigation examined how microglia and Müller cells interact with each other following initial microglial activation. METHODS Mouse Müller cells were cultured alone, or co-cultured with activated(More)
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. It has been hypothesized that microglia undergo age-related changes in gene expression patterns that give rise to pathogenic phenotypes. We compared the gene expression profiles in microglia(More)
The molecular mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis and development is not well understood. Published data suggest that the process may involve two bHLH genes, ath5 and NSCL1. Gain-of-function studies show that ath5 increases RGC production in the developing retina. We examined whether two chick genes, cath5 and cNSCL1, can guide retinal pigment(More)
Photoreceptors are highly specialized sensory neurons in the retina, and their degeneration results in blindness. Replacement with developing photoreceptor cells promises to be an effective therapy, but it requires a supply of new photoreceptors, because the neural retina in human eyes lacks regeneration capability. We report efficient generation of(More)
Guiding non-neural, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to produce retinal neurons may offer a source of developing neurons for cell-replacement. Sox2 plays important roles in maintaining neural progenitor/stem cell properties and in converting fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells. This study tests the possibility of using Sox2 to reprogram RPE to(More)
The transcriptional regulatory network governing the establishment of retinal neuron diversity is not well delineated. We report experimental results suggesting proneural gene neurogenin3 (ngn3) participating in this regulatory network. Retinal expression of chick ngn3 was confined to early neurogenesis. Overexpression of ngn3 in chick retina reduced cell(More)