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BACKGROUND Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of kidney disease. We aimed to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese subjects with diabetes and pre-diabetes and the risk factors for kidney disease. METHODS An urban community-based sample of 3714 adults in Shanghai was classified into normal(More)
We characterized the function of two rice phosphate (Pi) transporters: OsPHT1;9 (OsPT9) and OsPHT1;10 (OsPT10). OsPT9 and OsPT10 were expressed in the root epidermis, root hairs and lateral roots, with their expression being specifically induced by Pi starvation. In leaves, expression of the two genes was observed in both mesophyll and vasculature.(More)
A leaky rice mutant was isolated from an ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized rice library based on its short root phenotype. The map-based cloning results showed that the mutant was due to a point mutation in the intron of OsDGL1 (LOC_Os07g10830), which encodes the dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase 48 kDa subunit precursor.(More)
BACKGROUND Fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) aims at reconstructing the spatial map of optical and fluorescence parameters from fluence measurements. Basically, solving large-scale matrix equations is computationally expensive for image reconstruction of FMT. Despite the reconstruction quality can be improved with more sources, it may result in higher(More)
We analyze the dynamic properties of a neural network model for on-off spiking neurons recorded in the first optic chiasm of the fly visual system. The model consists of two parallel pathways and three sequential processing stages. The first stage models photoreceptors. At the second stage, the signal is segregated into on- and off-pathways. These pathways(More)
Inhibition of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels by ATP, a process presumably initiated by binding of ATP to the pore-forming subunit, Kir6.2, is reduced in the presence of phosphoinositides (PPIs). Previous studies led to the hypothesis that PPIs compromise ATP binding. Here, this hypothesis was tested using purified Kir6.2. We show that PPIs bind(More)
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg/L) induced the expression of auxin-related gene (OsYUCCA1, OsYUCCA5, OsIAA11 and OsPIN1) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues to accelerate auxin biosynthesis and transport,(More)
Membrane-bound anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositols have the capacity to modulate ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels through a mechanism involving long-range electrostatic interaction between the lipid headgroup and channel. However, it has not yet been determined whether the multiple effects of phosphatidylinositols reported in the(More)
Chitosan is one of the most abundant carbohydrate biopolymers in the world, and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), which is prepared from chitosan, is a plant immunity regulator. The present study aimed to validate the effect of COS on inducing resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Arabidopsis and to investigate the potential defence-related signalling(More)
Intracellular application of certain charged methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents modified and irreversibly inhibited Kir6.2 channels when cysteine substitutions were introduced at positions Ile-210, Ile-211, or Ser-212 within the putative cytoplasmic region. Inhibition depends on the spatial dimensions of the MTS reagents. Reaction of MTS reagents, having(More)