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Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is one of the most common forms of peripheral neuropathy, affecting about 30% of people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The symptoms of HIV-SN are dominated by neuropathic pain. Glia activation in the spinal cord has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. This study(More)
Enterovirus 68 (EVD68) causes respiratory illness, mostly in children. Despite a reported low-level of transmission, the occurrence of several recent outbreaks worldwide including the 2014 outbreak in North America has raised concerns regarding the pathogenesis and evolution of EVD68. To elucidate the phylogenetic features of EVD68 and possible causes for(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients and is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence shows that painful HIV sensory neuropathy is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, MAP Kinase, tumor necrosis(More)
To provide a basis for using indigenous bacteria for bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil, the heavy metal resistance and plant growth-promoting activity of 136 isolates from V-Ti magnetite mine tailing soil were systematically analyzed. Among the 13 identified bacterial genera, the most abundant genus was Bacillus (79 isolates) out of which 32(More)
Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune defense against infectious pathogens and regulate the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. However, their roles in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unclear. This study examined the phenotype, distribution, clinical relevance and potential function of MAIT(More)
Nanostructures have the potential to exhibit good thermoelectric properties by tuning and controlling their size and thickness, and the competing electrical and thermal properties can be decoupled by engineering the interface and grain boundary. In the present study, Sb2Te3 nanoplatelets with different sizes were fabricated using a practical solvothermal(More)
Both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate production of proinflammatory cytokines in many types of cells. c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) is a key regulator of many cellular events including cell inflammation and/or programmed cell death (apoptosis). In addition to mediating immune and inflammatory responses, NF-κB(More)
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