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Tolerance and dependence are common complications of long-term treatment of pain with opioids, which substantially limit the long-term use of these drugs. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Studies have implicated the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the pathogenesis of morphine withdrawal, and recent evidence suggests(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is one of the most common forms of peripheral neuropathy, affecting about 30% of people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The symptoms of HIV-SN are dominated by neuropathic pain. Glia activation in the spinal cord has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. This study(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients and is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence shows that painful HIV sensory neuropathy is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, MAP Kinase, tumor necrosis(More)
Both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate production of proinflammatory cytokines in many types of cells. c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) is a key regulator of many cellular events including cell inflammation and/or programmed cell death (apoptosis). In addition to mediating immune and inflammatory responses, NF-κB(More)
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