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CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25- T cells into anergic/suppressor(More)
Increased leukocyte elastase activity in mice lacking secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) leads to impaired wound healing due to enhanced activity of TGFbeta and perhaps additional mechanisms. Proepithelin (PEPI), an epithelial growth factor, can be converted to epithelins (EPIs) in vivo by unknown mechanisms with unknown consequences. We found(More)
HIV-1 recognition by, interaction with, and/or infection of CD4(+)CCR5(+) tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. By comparison, circulating CD4(+)CCR5(+) monocytes appear relatively resistant to HIV-1, and a fundamental unresolved question involves deciphering restriction factors unique to(More)
Disruption of the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors is often associated with pathologic tissue destruction. To explore the therapeutic potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in erosive joint diseases, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed active rat SLPI, which shares the protease-reactive site found in human SLPI. In a rat(More)
Impaired wound healing states lead to substantial morbidity and cost with treatment resulting in an expenditure of billions of dollars per annum in the U.S. alone. Both chronic wounds and impaired acute wounds are characterized by excessive inflammation, enhanced proteolysis, and reduced matrix deposition. These confounding factors are exacerbated in the(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of CD4(+) IL-9-producing helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+)(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a cytidine deaminase, is a recently recognized innate intracellular protein with lethal activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Packaged into progeny virions, APOBEC3G enzymatic activity leads to HIV DNA degradation. As a counterattack, HIV virion infectivity factor(More)
In periodontitis, a common chronic inflammatory condition, gram-negative-rich bacterial biofilms trigger, in susceptible individuals, perpetuating inflammation that results in extensive tissue damage of tooth supporting structures. To delineate immune cell-dependent mechanisms whereby bacterial challenge drives persistent destructive inflammation in(More)
Harnessing regulatory T (Treg) cells is a promising approach for treating autoimmune disease. However, inducing antigen-specific Treg cells that target inflammatory immune cells without compromising beneficial immune responses has remained an unmet challenge. We developed a pathway to generate autoantigen-specific Treg cells in vivo, which showed(More)
Infection of CD4(+) chemokine coreceptor(+) targets by HIV is aided and abetted by the proficiency of HIV in eliminating or neutralizing host cell-derived defensive molecules. Among these innate protective molecules, a family of intracellular apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) cytidine deaminases, is constitutively(More)