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CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. One critical question is whether Treg can only be generated in the thymus or can differentiate from peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells. In this paper, we present novel evidence that conversion of naive peripheral CD4+CD25- T cells into anergic/suppressor(More)
Increased leukocyte elastase activity in mice lacking secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) leads to impaired wound healing due to enhanced activity of TGFbeta and perhaps additional mechanisms. Proepithelin (PEPI), an epithelial growth factor, can be converted to epithelins (EPIs) in vivo by unknown mechanisms with unknown consequences. We found(More)
Disruption of the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors is often associated with pathologic tissue destruction. To explore the therapeutic potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in erosive joint diseases, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed active rat SLPI, which shares the protease-reactive site found in human SLPI. In a rat(More)
Infection of CD4(+) chemokine coreceptor(+) targets by HIV is aided and abetted by the proficiency of HIV in eliminating or neutralizing host cell-derived defensive molecules. Among these innate protective molecules, a family of intracellular apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) cytidine deaminases, is constitutively(More)
Evidence indicates that cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) may negatively regulate T cell activation, but the basis for the inhibitory effect remains unknown. We report here that cross-linking of CTLA-4 induces transforming growth factor ␤ (TGF-␤) production by murine CD4 ϩ T cells. CD4 ϩ T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th0 clones all(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), a cytidine deaminase, is a recently recognized innate intracellular protein with lethal activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Packaged into progeny virions, APOBEC3G enzymatic activity leads to HIV DNA degradation. As a counterattack, HIV virion infectivity factor(More)
The distribution of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) at entry portals indicates its involvement in defending the host from pathogens, consistent with the ability of SLPI to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection by an unknown mechanism. We now demonstrate that SLPI binds to the membrane of human macrophages through the(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, a potent immunoregulatory molecule, was found to control the life and death decisions of T lymphocytes. Both thymic and peripheral T cell apoptosis was increased in mice lacking TGF-beta1 (TGF-beta1(-/-)) compared with wild-type littermates. Engagement of the T cell receptor enhanced this aberrant T cell apoptosis, as(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received(More)
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