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Timely deactivation of the alpha-subunit of the rod G-protein transducin (Galphat) is essential for the temporal resolution of rod vision. Regulators of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins accelerate hydrolysis of GTP by the alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins in vitro. Several retinal RGS proteins can act in vitro as GTPase accelerating proteins(More)
A multitude of heptahelical receptors use heterotrimeric G proteins to transduce signals to specific effector target molecules. The G protein transducin, Gt, couples photon-activated rhodopsin with the effector cyclic GMP phosophodiesterase (PDE) in the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. The interactions of the Gt alpha-subunit (alpha(t)) with the(More)
Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) has recently been shown to be a substrate of the insulin receptor (IR). In this study we utilize the yeast two-hybrid system and assays of in vitro interaction to demonstrate that IRS-2 interacts directly with the IR and the insulin-like growth factor I receptor. We show that, like IRS-1, the region of IRS-2 that(More)
Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Previous in situ hybridization analysis of mRNAs encoding RGS3-RGS11 revealed region-specific expression patterns in rat brain. RGS9 showed a particularly striking pattern of almost exclusive enrichment in striatum. In a(More)
RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) proteins regulate G protein signaling by accelerating GTP hydrolysis, but little is known about regulation of GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) activities or roles of domains and subunits outside the catalytic cores. RGS9-1 is the GAP required for rapid recovery of light responses in vertebrate photoreceptors and the(More)
A critical challenge of structural genomics is to extract functional information from protein structures. We present an example of how this may be accomplished using the Evolutionary Trace (ET) method in the context of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family. We have previously applied ET to the RGS family and identified a novel, evolutionarily(More)
PURPOSE The family of tubby-like proteins (TULPs), consisting of four family members, are all expressed in-the retina at varying levels. Mutations within two members, tub and TULP1, are known to lead to retinal degeneration in mouse and humans, respectively, suggesting the functional importance of this family of proteins in the retina. Despite a high degree(More)
The Grb10 protein appears to be an adapter protein of unknown function that has been implicated in insulin receptor (IR) signaling. The interaction of this protein with the IR has been shown to be mediated in part by the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Grb10. Here we demonstrate the existence of a second novel domain within Grb10 that interacts with the IR(More)
Copy number variation (CNV) in the human genome is an important determinant of susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Many autoimmune diseases share similar clinical and pathogenic features. Thus, CNVs of genes involved in immunity may serve as shared determinants of multiple autoimmune diseases. Here, we determined the association between CNV in the gene(More)
The SHC proteins have been implicated in insulin receptor (IR) signaling. In this study, we used the sensitive two-hybrid assay of protein-protein interaction to demonstrate that SHC interacts directly with the IR. The interaction is mediated by SHC amino acids 1 to 238 and is therefore independent of the Src homology 2 domain. The interaction is dependent(More)