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BACKGROUND It is now believed that in the origin of life, proteins should have been "invented" in an RNA world. However, due to the complexity of a possible RNA-based proto-translation system, this evolving process seems quite complicated and the associated scenario remains very blurry. Considering that RNA can bind amino acids with specificity, it has been(More)
Sparse adaptive channel estimation problem is one of the most important topics in broadband wireless communications systems due to its simplicity and robustness. So far many sparsity-aware channel estimation algorithms have been developed based on the well-known minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion, such as the zero-attracting least mean square(More)
It is very likely that life began with some RNA (or RNA-like) molecules, self-replicating by base-pairing and exhibiting enzyme-like functions that favored the self-replication. Different functional molecules may have emerged by favoring their own self-replication at different aspects. Then, a direct route towards complexity/efficiency may have been through(More)
BACKGROUND States of depression are associated with increased sensitivity to negative events. For this novel study, we have assessed the relationship between the number of depressive episodes and the dysfunctional processing of emotional facial expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We used a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the(More)
BACKGROUND Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a components are sequential and co-occur. MMN represents the pre-attentive index of deviance detection and P3a represents the attention orienting response. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired pre-attentive information processing. To assess whether impaired pre-attentive information(More)
The origin of life remains a highly speculative field, mainly due to the shortage of our knowledge on prebiotic chemistry and basic understanding on the essence of life. In this context, computer simulation is expected to play an important role. For instance, the scenario concerning the genesis of the widely accepted RNA World remains blurry, though we have(More)
The least mean p-power (LMP) is one of the most popular adaptive filtering algorithms. With a proper p value, the LMP can outperform the traditional least mean square (p = 2), especially under the impulsive noise environments. In sparse channel estimation, the unknown channel may have a sparse impulsive (or frequency) response. In this paper, our goal is to(More)
Mental rotation performance may be used as an index of mental slowing or bradyphrenia and may reflect speed of motor preparation. Previous studies suggest that major depressive disorder (MDD) presents correlates of impaired behavioral performance for mental rotation and psychomotor disturbance. Very little is known about the electrophysiological mechanism(More)
A significant problem of the origin of life is the emergence of cellular self-replication. In the context of the "RNA world", a crucial concern is how the RNA-based protocells could achieve the ability to produce their own membrane. Here we show, with the aid of a computer simulation, that for these protocells, there would be "immediately" a selection(More)
It is now popularly accepted that an “RNA world” existed in early evolution. During division of RNA-based protocells, random distribution of individual genes (simultaneously as ribozymes) between offspring might have resulted in gene loss, especially when the number of gene types increased. Therefore, the emergence of a chromosome carrying linked genes was(More)