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Self-incompatibility (SI)--intraspecific pollen recognition systems that allow plants to avoid inbreeding--in the Solanaceae (the nightshade family) is controlled by a polymorphic S locus where "self" pollen is rejected on pistils with matching S alleles. In contrast, unilateral interspecific incompatibility (UI) prevents hybridization between related(More)
The partial pollen abortion of hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice is one of the major barriers in utilizing intersubspecific heterosis in hybrid rice breeding. Although a single hybrid pollen sterility locus may have little impact on spikelet fertility, the cumulative effect of several loci usually leads to a serious(More)
Apparent amylose content (AAC) is a key determinant of eating and cooking quality in rice and it is mainly controlled by the Wx gene which encodes a granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). In this study, sixteen single-segment substitution lines harboring the Wx gene from 16 different donors and their recipient HJX74 were used to detect the naturally(More)
Long-term excessive fluoride intake is linked to skeletal disease. Skeletal health is influenced by the balance between bone formation and resorption of which osteoblast function is critical. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fluoride treatment on osteoblast proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression in(More)
In 2011, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection rates rose substantially in vaccinated swine herds. To determine the distribution profile of PEDV outbreak strains, we sequenced the full-length spike gene from samples from 9 farms where animals exhibited severe diarrhea and mortality rates were high. Three new PEDV variants were identified.
Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a prezygotic reproductive barrier in plants that prevents fertilization by foreign (interspecific) pollen through the inhibition of pollen tube growth. Incompatibility occurs in one direction only, most often when the female is a self-incompatible species and the male is self-compatible (the "SI x SC rule"). Pistils of the(More)
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has provided a non-invasive means for field root investigation. However, the horizontal cross angle (x) of root orientation intersecting a survey line considerably impacts the amplitude area (A) reflected from a root and impairs the accuracy of GPR-based root quantification. Prediction of A(90°) (the value of A scanning at x =(More)
We previously isolated a pollen factor, ui6.1, which encodes a Cullin1 protein (CUL1) that functions in unilateral interspecific incompatibility (UI) in Solanum. Here we show that CUL1 is also required for pollen function in self-incompatibility (SI). We used RNA interference (RNAi) to reduce CUL1 expression in pollen of Solanum arcanum, a wild SI tomato(More)
A novel class of HA inhibitors (4a) was identified based on ligand similarity search of known HA inhibitors. Parallel synthesis and further structural modifications resulted in 1-phenyl-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (4-cyano-phenyl)-methyl-amide 4t as a potent and selective inhibitor to phylogenetic H1 influenza viruses with an EC(50) of 98 nM against H1N1(More)