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In 2011, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection rates rose substantially in vaccinated swine herds. To determine the distribution profile of PEDV outbreak strains, we sequenced the full-length spike gene from samples from 9 farms where animals exhibited severe diarrhea and mortality rates were high. Three new PEDV variants were identified.
Self-incompatibility (SI)--intraspecific pollen recognition systems that allow plants to avoid inbreeding--in the Solanaceae (the nightshade family) is controlled by a polymorphic S locus where "self" pollen is rejected on pistils with matching S alleles. In contrast, unilateral interspecific incompatibility (UI) prevents hybridization between related(More)
The tomato clade within the genus Solanum has numerous advantages for mechanistic studies of reproductive isolation. Its thirteen closely related species, along with four closely allied Solanum species, provide a defined group with diverse mating systems that display complex interspecific reproductive barriers. Several kinds of pre- and postzygotic barriers(More)
The partial pollen abortion of hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice is one of the major barriers in utilizing intersubspecific heterosis in hybrid rice breeding. Although a single hybrid pollen sterility locus may have little impact on spikelet fertility, the cumulative effect of several loci usually leads to a serious(More)
Long-term excessive fluoride intake is linked to skeletal disease. Skeletal health is influenced by the balance between bone formation and resorption of which osteoblast function is critical. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of fluoride treatment on osteoblast proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression in(More)
The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes a channel that conducts the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG reduce I(Kr) and cause congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). More frequently, common medications can reduce I(Kr) and cause LQTS as a side effect. Protein(More)
Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infection by investigating the spike protein of a PEDV isolate(More)
Unilateral interspecific incompatibility (UI) is a postpollination, prezygotic reproductive barrier that prevents hybridization between related species when the female parent is self-incompatible (SI) and the male parent is self-compatible (SC). In tomato and related Solanum species, two genes, ui1.1 and ui6.1, are required for pollen compatibility on(More)
Human CD74 induces a signalling cascade that results in the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); however, porcine CD74 has not been widely studied. In this study, we show that porcine CD74 is mainly expressed in cells of the macrophage lineage and can be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)], and(More)
Apparent amylose content (AAC) is a key determinant of eating and cooking quality in rice and it is mainly controlled by the Wx gene which encodes a granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). In this study, sixteen single-segment substitution lines harboring the Wx gene from 16 different donors and their recipient HJX74 were used to detect the naturally(More)