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As one of the major Chinese dialects, Cantonese has a tone system consisting of nine lexical tones and three additional changed tones, which is considerably more complex than that of Mandarin. The most important acoustic feature characterizing these tones is the contour of the voice fundamental frequency (the F(0) contour). In this article we present an(More)
Emphasis and question are two factors that have significant effects on F<sub>0</sub> contours for various languages, among which tone languages require more careful study because their F<sub>0</sub> contours show complex interaction between lexical tones and sentence intonation. This paper employs the command-response model for the process of F<sub>0</sub>(More)
The effects of focus on F 0 contours and syllable durations of spoken Cantonese are investigated through a controlled experiment involving all the disyllabic tone pairs. Regardless of the tones, syllable durations in the vicinity of the on-focus syllable are lengthened in systematically varying rates. For F 0 pattern, two approaches are compared: analysis(More)
Aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and proliferation of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. However, its mechanism remains unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules which are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and enrolled in signaling transduction network in(More)
As a major Chinese dialect, Cantonese is well known for its complex tone system. This paper applies the command-response model to represent the F 0 contours of Cantonese speech. Analysis-by-Synthesis is conducted on both utterances of carrier sentences and utterances with less constrained structures, from which a set of appropriate tone command patterns is(More)
Word emphasis and question intonation have significant effects on F 0 contours for various languages. This paper employs the command-response F 0 model to investigate the effects of the two factors for Cantonese, a typical tone language with nine tones. Analysis shows that the main effect of word emphasis associated with narrow focus is not on tone command(More)
Scatterplots are widely used to visualize scatter dataset for exploring outliers, clusters, local trends, and correlations. Depicting multi-class scattered points within a single scatterplot view, however, may suffer from heavy overdraw, making it inefficient for data analysis. This paper presents a new visual abstraction scheme that employs a hierarchical(More)