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As one of the major Chinese dialects, Cantonese has a tone system consisting of nine lexical tones and three additional changed tones, which is considerably more complex than that of Mandarin. The most important acoustic feature characterizing these tones is the contour of the voice fundamental frequency (the F(0) contour). In this article we present an(More)
Emphasis and question are two factors that have significant effects on F<sub>0</sub> contours for various languages, among which tone languages require more careful study because their F<sub>0</sub> contours show complex interaction between lexical tones and sentence intonation. This paper employs the command-response model for the process of F<sub>0</sub>(More)
The effects of focus on F 0 contours and syllable durations of spoken Cantonese are investigated through a controlled experiment involving all the disyllabic tone pairs. Regardless of the tones, syllable durations in the vicinity of the on-focus syllable are lengthened in systematically varying rates. For F 0 pattern, two approaches are compared: analysis(More)
As a major Chinese dialect, Cantonese is well known for its complex tone system. This paper applies the command-response model to represent the F 0 contours of Cantonese speech. Analysis-by-Synthesis is conducted on both utterances of carrier sentences and utterances with less constrained structures, from which a set of appropriate tone command patterns is(More)
This paper discusses a methodology using a minimal set of sentences to adapt an existing TTS duration model to capture inter-speaker variations. The assumption is that the original duration database contains information of both language-specific and speaker-specific duration characteristics. In training a duration model for a new speaker, only the(More)
Word emphasis and question intonation have significant effects on F 0 contours for various languages. This paper employs the command-response F 0 model to investigate the effects of the two factors for Cantonese, a typical tone language with nine tones. Analysis shows that the main effect of word emphasis associated with narrow focus is not on tone command(More)
This paper first presents the physiological and physical properties of the vocal fold and the laryngeal structure involving intrinsic laryngeal muscles that are mainly responsible for the generation of F 0 contours with global components and positive local components. It then takes up the mechanism involving extrinsic laryngeal muscles for generating(More)