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Neurons respond directly to mechanical deformation with pannexin‐mediated ATP release and autostimulation of P2X7 receptors
Stretch‐dependent release of ATP through neuronal pannexins, combined with the autostimulation of the P2X7 receptors, provides a new pathway by which neuronal activity and health can be altered by mechanical strain independently of glial activity. Expand
Identification of the A3 adenosine receptor in rat retinal ganglion cells.
Retinal ganglion cells express A3 adenosine receptor mRNA and Stimulation of this receptor can reduce the Ca2+ overload following excessive activation of P2X7 receptors. Expand
Restoration of lysosomal pH in RPE cells from cultured human and ABCA4(-/-) mice: pharmacologic approaches and functional recovery.
Elevation of lysosomal pH in RPE cells interferes with the degradation of outer segments and may contribute to the pathologies associated with A2E. Expand
Lysosomal alkalinization, lipid oxidation, and reduced phagosome clearance triggered by activation of the P2X7 receptor
It is demonstrated that stimulation of the P2X7 receptor for ATP alkalinizes lysosomes in cultured human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and impairs lysOSomal function, suggesting a possible role for overstimulation in diseases of accumulation. Expand
Glutamate acts at NMDA receptors on fresh bovine and on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells to trigger release of ATP
It is suggested that glutamate stimulates NMDA receptors on the apical membrane of RPE cells to release ATP, which can amplify the glutaminergic signal by increasing Ca2+ inside R PE cells, and might activate Ca2-‐dependent conductances. Expand
The P2X7 Receptor Primes IL-1β and the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Astrocytes Exposed to Mechanical Strain
Mechanical trauma to the retina primed NLRP3 inflammasome components, but only if there was ATP release through pannexin hemichannels, and autostimulation of the P2X7 receptor. Expand
Mechanosensitive release of adenosine 5′‐triphosphate through pannexin channels and mechanosensitive upregulation of pannexin channels in optic nerve head astrocytes: A mechanism for purinergic
Astrocytes released ATP in response to mechanical strain, with pannexin 1 the predominant efflux pathway, and sustained strain upregulated pannexins in vitro and in vivo, providing a mechanism by which extracellular ATP remains elevated under chronic mechanical strain. Expand
Stimulation of the P2X7 receptor kills rat retinal ganglion cells in vivo.
The P2X(7) receptor is associated with the death of many cell types, and growing evidence supports its presence on neurons. Activation of the P2X(7) receptor on isolated retinal ganglion cellsExpand
The A3 adenosine receptor attenuates the calcium rise triggered by NMDA receptors in retinal ganglion cells
The A(3) adenosine receptor is emerging as an important regulator of neuronal signaling, and in some situations receptor stimulation can limit excitability. As the NMDA receptor frequentlyExpand
Approaches for detecting lysosomal alkalinization and impaired degradation in fresh and cultured RPE cells: evidence for a role in retinal degenerations.
Various approaches to determine lysosomal pH in fresh and cultured cells, as well as the potential to restore pH levels to an optimal range, can help identify and repair pathologies associated with lysOSomal defects in RPE cells and perhaps also suggest new approaches to treat lysoomal storage diseases throughout the body. Expand