Restoration of lysosomal pH in RPE cells from cultured human and ABCA4(-/-) mice: pharmacologic approaches and functional recovery.
- Ji Liu, Wennan Lu, D. Reigada, J. Nguyen, A. Laties, C. Mitchell
- Biology, ChemistryInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
- 1 February 2008
Elevation of lysosomal pH in RPE cells interferes with the degradation of outer segments and may contribute to the pathologies associated with A2E.
Lysosomal alkalinization, lipid oxidation, and reduced phagosome clearance triggered by activation of the P2X7 receptor
It is demonstrated that stimulation of the P2X7 receptor for ATP alkalinizes lysosomes in cultured human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and impairs lysOSomal function, suggesting a possible role for overstimulation in diseases of accumulation.
Identification of the A3 adenosine receptor in rat retinal ganglion cells.
Retinal ganglion cells express A3 adenosine receptor mRNA and Stimulation of this receptor can reduce the Ca2+ overload following excessive activation of P2X7 receptors.
Neurons respond directly to mechanical deformation with pannexin‐mediated ATP release and autostimulation of P2X7 receptors
Stretch‐dependent release of ATP through neuronal pannexins, combined with the autostimulation of the P2X7 receptors, provides a new pathway by which neuronal activity and health can be altered by mechanical strain independently of glial activity.
Glutamate acts at NMDA receptors on fresh bovine and on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells to trigger release of ATP
It is suggested that glutamate stimulates NMDA receptors on the apical membrane of RPE cells to release ATP, which can amplify the glutaminergic signal by increasing Ca2+ inside R PE cells, and might activate Ca2-‐dependent conductances.
The P2X7 Receptor Primes IL-1β and the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Astrocytes Exposed to Mechanical Strain
- Farraj Albalawi, Wennan Lu, J. Beckel, Jason C. Lim, S. McCaughey, C. Mitchell
- BiologyFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
- 8 August 2017
Mechanical trauma to the retina primed NLRP3 inflammasome components, but only if there was ATP release through pannexin hemichannels, and autostimulation of the P2X7 receptor.
Mechanosensitive release of adenosine 5′‐triphosphate through pannexin channels and mechanosensitive upregulation of pannexin channels in optic nerve head astrocytes: A mechanism for purinergic…
Astrocytes released ATP in response to mechanical strain, with pannexin 1 the predominant efflux pathway, and sustained strain upregulated pannexins in vitro and in vivo, providing a mechanism by which extracellular ATP remains elevated under chronic mechanical strain.
The A3 adenosine receptor attenuates the calcium rise triggered by NMDA receptors in retinal ganglion cells
Approaches for detecting lysosomal alkalinization and impaired degradation in fresh and cultured RPE cells: evidence for a role in retinal degenerations.
The P2X7 receptor in retinal ganglion cells: A neuronal model of pressure-induced damage and protection by a shifting purinergic balance
- C. Mitchell, Wennan Lu, Huiling Hu, Xiulan Zhang, D. Reigada, Mei Zhang
- BiologyPurinergic Signalling Purinergic Signalling
- 16 October 2008
The activation of P2X7 receptors has both physiologic and pathophysiologic implications for ganglion cell function and these characteristics may also provide an insight into the contributions the P2x7 receptor makes to neurons elsewhere.