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The aim of this study is to investigate macrophages polarization induced by methionine enkephalin (MENK) that promotes tumoricidal responses in vivo and in vitro. Both phenotypic and functional activities of macrophages were assessed by the quantitative analysis of key surface molecules on macrophages with flow cytometry, immunofluorescent staining, and the(More)
There are a large number of interactions at molecular and cellular levels between the plant polysaccharides and immune system. Plant polysaccharides present an interesting effects as immunomodulators, particularly in the induction of the cells both in innate and adaptive immune systems. Activation of DCs could improve antitumoral responses usually(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring inflammatory hair loss disease. We investigated the early pathological changes of AA to identify possible factors participating in its pathogenesis. METHODS Clinical, laboratory and pathological features of 87 AA patients were investigated. RESULTS Anti-nuclear antibody was found in 11 of 85(More)
A series of poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymers (Multi-PLE) with high molecular weight were synthesized and successfully used to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds. Using mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts as model cells, the cell affinity of various Multi-PLE copolymers was evaluated and compared with that of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) by(More)
In recent years, a critical role for β-galactoside-binding protein, Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has emerged in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer. It is a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 (Tim-3), a type-I glycoprotein that is persistently expressed on dysfunctional T cells during chronic viral infections. Gal-9 exerts its pivotal(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neurodegenerative diseases present progressive neurological disorder induced by cell death or apoptosis. Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside isolated from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is present in a wide range of plant families. Although catalpol is an effective anti-apoptotic agent in LPS-induced neurodegeneration, the(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms by which synthetic methionine enkephalin (MENK) exerts therapeutic effects on tumor growth. Our findings in vivo or in vitro show that MENK treatment either in vivo or in vitro could up-regulate the percentages of CD8+T cells, induce markers of activated T cells, increased cytotoxic(More)
Methionine enkephalin (MENK), the endogenous neuropeptide, is known to exert direct effects on the neuroendocrine and the immune systems and participates in regulation of various functions of cells related to both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Dendritic cells (DCs) play important role in initiating and regulating T cell responses. The aim of this(More)
Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly(More)
Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) has been shown to sensitize glioblastoma cells to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment via down-modulation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression. To date, whether the efficacy of TMZ therapy is correlated with MGMT expression and whether HIF-1α suppression exerts similar effects in human(More)