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Higher cortical functions (perception, cognition, learning and memory) are in large part based on the integration of electrical and calcium signals that takes place in thin dendritic branches of neocortical pyramidal cells (synaptic integration). The mechanisms underlying the synaptic integration in thin basal dendrites are largely unexplored. We use a(More)
Basal dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons are relatively short and directly attached to the cell body. This allows electrical signals arising in basal dendrites to strongly influence the neuronal output. Likewise, somatic action potentials (APs) should readily propagate back into the basilar dendritic tree to influence synaptic plasticity. Two recent(More)
The physiological responses of dendrites to dopaminergic inputs are poorly understood and controversial. We applied dopamine on one dendritic branch while simultaneously monitoring action potentials (APs) from multiple dendrites using either calcium-sensitive dye, voltage-sensitive dye or both. Dopaminergic suppression of dendritic calcium transients was(More)
In response to food reward and other pertinent events, midbrain dopaminergic neurons fire short bursts of action potentials causing a phasic release of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (rapid and transient increases in cortical dopamine concentration). Here we apply short (2s) iontophoretic pulses of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and dopaminergic agonists(More)
In CNS neurons most of synaptic integration takes place in thin dendritic branches that are difficult to study with conventional physiological recording techniques (electrodes). When cellular compartments are too small, or too many, for electrode recordings, optical methods bring considerable advantages. Here we focused our experimental effort on the(More)
The epithelia lining the epididymides of many species consists of several cell types. We have provided evidence that the basal cells are essential to the integrated functions of the epithelium. Basal cells, but not principal cells, and other cells in the epididymis express TRPC3 and COX-1. We have isolated basal cells from intact rat epididymis using(More)
In the field of cortical cellular physiology, much effort has been invested in understanding thick apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons and the regenerative sodium and calcium spikes that take place in the apical trunk. Here we focus on thin dendrites of pyramidal cells (basal, oblique, and tuft dendrites), and we discuss one relatively novel form of an(More)
Our knowledge about the developing human cerebral cortex is based on the analysis of fixed postmortem material. Here we use electrical recordings from unfixed human postmortem tissue to characterize the synaptic physiology and spontaneous network activity of pioneer cortical neurons ("subplate neurons"). Our electrophysiological experiments show that(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Symptoms of constipation are extremely common, especially in the elderly. The present study aim to identify an efficacious treatment strategy for constipation by evaluating the secretion-promoting and laxative effect of a herbal compound, naringenin, on intestinal epithelial anion secretion and a rat constipation model, respectively. (More)
Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and warm blooded animals causing devastating disease worldwide. It has long been a mystery as to why the peritoneal macrophages of rats are naturally resistant to T. gondii infection while those of mice are not. Here, we report that high expression levels and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and low levels(More)