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Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer(More)
Gene expression and regulation in eukaryotes is controlled by orchestrated binding of regulatory proteins, including both activators and repressors, to promoters and other cis-regulatory DNA elements. An increasing number of plant genomes have been sequenced; however, a similar effort to the ENCODE project, which aimed to identify all functional elements in(More)
The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the United States and other parts of the world after the commercialization of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops have constitutive overexpression of a glyphosate-insensitive form of the herbicide target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Increased use of glyphosate over(More)
Several congenital muscular dystrophies caused by defects in known or putative glycosyltransferases are commonly associated with hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) and a marked reduction of its receptor function. We have investigated changes in the processing and function of alpha-DG resulting from genetic manipulation of LARGE, the putative(More)
Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Y(h)). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an(More)
Gene expression is controlled by the complex interaction of transcription factors binding to promoters and other regulatory DNA elements. One common characteristic of the genomic regions associated with regulatory proteins is a pronounced sensitivity to DNase I digestion. We generated genome-wide high-resolution maps of DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites(More)
The functional centromeres of rice (Oryza sativa, AA genome) chromosomes contain two key DNA components: the CRR centromeric retrotransposons and a 155-bp satellite repeat, CentO. However, several wild Oryza species lack the CentO repeat. We developed a chromatin immunoprecipitation-based technique to clone DNA fragments derived from chromatin containing(More)
Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and selected antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in Shigella isolates recovered in outpatients from 1997 to 2009 in China. METHODS The isolates were subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Shigella isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or(More)
Multithreaded programming relies on locks to ensure the consistency of shared data. Lock contention is the main reason of low parallel efficiency and poor scalability of multithreaded programs. Lock profiling is the primary approach to detect lock contention. Prior lock profiling tools are able to track lock behaviors but directly store profiling data into(More)