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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during reperfusion. Occludin and claudins are recently described tight junction proteins (TJPs) that form the BBB. We hypothesized that the opening of the BBB was because of the degradation of TJPs by the MMPs. Spontaneously hypertensive rats had a 90 mins middle cerebral artery(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs early enough to be within the thrombolytic time window, and this early ischemic BBB damage is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation and thus emerging as a promising target for reducing the hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic stroke therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying early ischemic BBB(More)
Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-induced neuronal protection, several key questions concerning ROS remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study is to obtain direct evidence for the formation of specific ROS species generated by IPC, and to determine the specific species that is responsible(More)
Early blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption resulting from excessive neurovascular proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation events in ischemic stroke. We have shown that normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) treatment reduces MMP-9 increase in the ischemic brain. The aim of this study was to determine whether(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and NADPH oxidase contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) treatment reduces MMP-9 and oxygen free radical generation in ischemic brain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NBO protects the BBB through inhibiting NADPH(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A major limitation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is the narrow time window for safe and effective therapy. Delayed tPA thrombolysis increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage and mortality, which, in part, is related to neurovascular proteolysis mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We(More)
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis, remains to be the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic complications. TPA-associated(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurring within the first few hours of ischemic stroke onset is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation following thrombolytic therapy. However, the mechanism of this acute BBB disruption remains unclear. In the neurovascular unit, neurons do not have direct contact with the endothelial barrier; however, they(More)
Oxygen therapy is a promising treatment strategy for ischemic stroke. One potential safety concern with oxygen therapy, however, is the possibility of increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could exacerbate ischemic brain injury. Our previous study indicated that normobaric hyperoxia (NBO, 95% O(2) with 5% CO(2)) treatment during(More)
Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), which maintains penumbral oxygenation, reduces brain injury during cerebral ischemia, and minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, reduces reperfusion injury, including inflammation, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. Since they have different mechanisms of action, we hypothesized that combining them would(More)