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Mutations in the CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene lead to X-linked immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM, which is often associated with autoimmune diseases. To determine the contribution of defective CD40-CD40L interactions to T cell autoreactivity, we reconstituted CD40-CD40L interactions by transferring T cells from CD40-deficient mice to syngenic athymic nude mice(More)
CD100/Sema4D is a 150-kd transmembrane protein that belongs to the semaphorin family. The interaction of CD100 with CD72 is critical for the immune system. In CD100-deficient mice, the production of specific antibodies against T-cell-dependent antigens is severely impaired, but not against T-cell-independent antigens. Here, a functional soluble CD100(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidized LDL has been found within the subendothelial space, and it exhibits numerous atherogenic properties, including induction of inflammatory genes. We examined the possibility that variations in endothelial response to minimally modified LDL (MM-LDL) constitute one of the genetic components in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS By a(More)
Sialic acids can be modified by O-acetyl esters at the 7- and/or 9-position, altering recognition by antibodies, lectins and viruses. 9(7)-O-acetylation is mediated by a sialic acid-specific O-acetyltransferase, which has proven difficult to purify. Two groups have recently isolated cDNAs possibly encoding this enzyme, by expression cloning of human(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme enzyme secreted by activated phagocytes, generates an array of oxidants proposed to play critical roles in host defense and local tissue damage. Both MPO and its reaction products are present in human atherosclerotic plaque, and it has been proposed that MPO oxidatively modifies targets in the artery wall. We have now generated(More)
Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) has been approved clinically for treating cardiac patients in China since 2005. Recent studies have indicated that HSYA may be neuroprotective at 24 h in experimental stroke models. Autophagy is a vital degradation pathway of damaged intracellular macromolecules or organelles to maintain homeostasis in physiological or(More)
Autophagy, an important intracellular degradation pathway, has been reported to clear impaired mitochondria and reduce mitochondria-mediated injury in ischemic disease. Our study and other recent investigations have shown that AKT-dependent autophagy contributes to the neuroprotection afforded by limb remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in experimental(More)
Cerebral ischemia interrupts oxygen supply to the affected tissues. Our previous studies have reported that normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) can maintain interstitial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the penumbra of ischemic stroke rats at the physiological level, thus affording significant neuroprotection. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the(More)
CD100/Sema4D is a 150-kDa transmembrane protein that belongs to the semaphorin family. Binding of CD100 to CD72 enhances the immune response by turning off the negative signaling effects of CD72. To investigate the physiological functions of CD100 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing a truncated form of CD100. A large amount of the soluble form(More)