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UNLABELLED The effect of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on cells remains open for investigation. Here we show that small Au NPs can be endocytosed by cells and form aggregates inside the cell, resulting in cytotoxicity. When the aggregates become too large to enter the cell and instead adhere onto the cell surface, however, the growth rate of HeLa cells(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in human DNA. The sequence of SNPs in each of the two copies of a given chromosome in a diploid organism is referred to as a haplotype. Haplotype information has many applications such as gene disease diagnoses, drug design, etc. The haplotype assembly problem is defined as(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms. To date, many studies of PD have focused on its cardinal motor symptoms. To study the nonmotor signs of early PD, we investigated the reactions solicited by heat pain stimuli in early untreated PD patients without pain using fMRI. The(More)
SaaS is a novel software model that data and applications of service are outsourced to service provider. Although SaaS model offers many benefits for small and medium enterprises, data privacy issue is the most challenge for the development of SaaS. In this paper we propose a new hybrid fragmentation approach which is different from traditional data(More)
Linkage analysis is the first step in the search for a disease gene. Linkage studies have facilitated the identification of several hundred human genes that can harbor mutations leading to a disease phenotype. In this paper, we study a very important case, where the sampled individuals are closely related, but the pedigree is not given. This situation(More)
Mutation region detection is the first step of searching for a disease gene and has facilitated the identification of several hundred human genes that can harbor mutations leading to a disease phenotype. Recently, the closest shared center problem (CSC) was proposed as a core to solve the mutation region detection problem when the pedigree is not given (Ma(More)
Disease risk assessment plays an important role in controlling the diffusion of infectious diseases. It needs a large number of environmental, social and economic development data in order to discover the pathogenic factors of a given disease. However, the conventional disease risk assessment is carried out mainly through the analysis of geographic data and(More)