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In this paper, we discuss security issues and their current solutions in the mobile ad hoc network. Owe to the vulnerable nature of the mobile ad hoc network, there are numerous security threats that disturb the development of it. We first analyze the main vulnerabilities in the mobile ad hoc networks, which have made it much easier to suffer from attacks(More)
Thirteen rice CMS lines derived from different cytoplasms were classified into eight groups by PCR amplification on mtDNA. The orf79 gene, which causes Boro II CMS, possibly results in Dian1-CMS. Thirteen rice cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines derived from different cytoplasms are widely used for hybrid rice breeding. Based on 27 loci on mitochondrial(More)
Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs) are known to be vulnerable to a variety of attacks due to lack of central authority or fixed network infrastructure. Many security schemes have been proposed to identify misbehaving nodes. Most of these security schemes rely on either a predefined threshold, or a set of well-defined training data to build up the detection(More)
Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are required to relay data packets to enable communication between other nodes that are not in radio range with each other. However, whether for selfish or malicious reasons, a node may fail to cooperate during the network operations or even attempt to disturb them, both of which have been recognized as misbehaviors.(More)
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have the potential to transform the way people travel through the creation of a safe interoperable wireless communications network that includes cars, buses, traffic signals, cell phones, and other devices. However, VANETs are vulnerable to security threats due to increasing reliance on communication, computing, and(More)
Due to lack of pre-deployed infrastructure, nodes in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are required to relay data packets for other nodes to enable multi-hop communication between nodes that are not in the radio range with each other. However, whether for selfish or malicious purposes, a node may refuse to cooperate during the network operations or even(More)
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are extremely vulnerable to a variety of misbehaviors because of their basic features, including lack of communication infrastructure, short transmission range, and dynamic network topology. To detect and mitigate those misbehaviors, many trust management schemes have been proposed for MANETs. Most rely on pre-defined weights(More)
The age of technology has changed the way that surgeons are being trained. Traditional methodologies for training can include lecturing, shadowing, apprenticing, and developing skills within live clinical situations. Computerized tools which simulate surgical procedures and/or experiences can allow for "virtual" experiences to enhance the traditional(More)
The loss of airway epithelial integrity contributes significantly to asthma pathogenesis. Evidence suggests that vitamin D plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of asthma. However, its role in airway epithelial barrier function remains uncertain. We have previously demonstrated impaired epithelial junctions in a model of toluene(More)