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Caenorhabditis elegans contains a family of putative insulin-like genes proposed to regulate dauer arrest and senescence. These sequences often lack characteristic sequence features of human insulin essential for its folding, structure, and function. Here, we describe the structure and receptor-binding properties of INS-6, a single-chain polypeptide(More)
Proinsulin contains six cysteines whose specific pairing (A6-A11, A7-B7, and A20-B19) is a defining feature of the insulin fold. Pairing information is contained within A and B domains as demonstrated by studies of insulin chain recombination. Two insulin isomers containing non-native disulfide bridges ([A7-A11,A6-B7,A20-B19] and [A6-A7,A11-B7,A20-B19]),(More)
The A and B chains of insulin combine to form native disulfide bridges without detectable isomers. The fidelity of chain combination thus recapitulates the folding of proinsulin, a precursor protein in which the two chains are tethered by a disordered connecting peptide. We have recently shown that chain combination is blocked by seemingly conservative(More)
The insulins of eutherian mammals contain histidines at positions B5 and B10. The role of His(B10) is well defined: although not required in the mature hormone for receptor binding, in the islet beta cell this side chain functions in targeting proinsulin to glucose-regulated secretory granules and provides axial zincbinding sites in storage hexamers. In(More)
How insulin binds to the insulin receptor has long been a subject of speculation. Although the structure of the free hormone has been extensively characterized, a variety of evidence suggests that a conformational change occurs upon receptor binding. Here, we employ chiral mutagenesis, comparison of corresponding d and l amino acid substitutions, to(More)
How insulin binds to its receptor is unknown despite decades of investigation. Here, we employ chiral mutagenesis-comparison of corresponding d and l amino acid substitutions in the hormone-to define a structural switch between folding-competent and active conformations. Our strategy is motivated by the T --> R transition, an allosteric feature of(More)
Oxidative folding of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and single-chain insulin analogs proceeds via one- and two-disulfide intermediates. A predominant one-disulfide intermediate in each case contains the canonical A20-B19 disulfide bridge (cystines 18-61 in IGF-I and 19-85 in human proinsulin). Here, we describe a disulfide-linked peptide model of this(More)
Single-chain insulin (SCI) analogs provide insight into the inter-relation of hormone structure, function, and dynamics. Although compatible with wild-type structure, short connecting segments (<3 residues) prevent induced fit upon receptor binding and so are essentially without biological activity. Substantial but incomplete activity can be regained with(More)
The A and B chains of insulin combine to form native disulfide bridges without detectable isomers. The fidelity of chain combination thus recapitulates the folding of proinsulin, a precursor protein in which the two chains are tethered by a disordered connecting peptide. We have recently shown that chain combination is blocked by seemingly conservative(More)
The existing method of contour-based font description is difficult to meet the personalized need for various style font generations because of the large size of Chinese character set. In this paper, we propose a novel glyph description method which treats the Chinese character as a constitution of the stable part called "structure" and the mutable part(More)