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Evolutionary dynamics of the plastid inverted repeat: the effects of expansion, contraction, and loss on substitution rates.
Rates of nucleotide substitution were previously shown to be several times slower in the plastid inverted repeat (IR) compared with single-copy (SC) regions, suggesting that the IR provides enhancedExpand
Unprecedented heterogeneity in the synonymous substitution rate within a plant genome.
The synonymous substitution rate varies widely among species, but it is generally quite stable within a genome due to the absence of strong selective pressures. In plants, plastid genes tend toExpand
Ginkgo and Welwitschia Mitogenomes Reveal Extreme Contrasts in Gymnosperm Mitochondrial Evolution.
Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of flowering plants are well known for their extreme diversity in size, structure, gene content, and rates of sequence evolution and recombination. In contrast,Expand
Complete plastid genomes from Ophioglossum californicum, Psilotum nudum, and Equisetum hyemale reveal an ancestral land plant genome structure and resolve the position of Equisetales among
BackgroundPlastid genome structure and content is remarkably conserved in land plants. This widespread conservation has facilitated taxon-rich phylogenetic analyses that have resolved organismalExpand
Predominant and Substoichiometric Isomers of the Plastid Genome Coexist within Juniperus Plants and Have Shifted Multiple Times during Cupressophyte Evolution
Most land plant plastomes contain two copies of a large inverted repeat (IR) that promote high-frequency homologous recombination to generate isomeric genomic forms. Among conifer plastomes, thisExpand
Multiple origins of endosymbionts in Chlorellaceae with no reductive effects on the plastid or mitochondrial genomes
Ancient endosymbiotic relationships have led to extreme genomic reduction in many bacterial and eukaryotic algal endosymbionts. Endosymbionts in more recent and/or facultative relationships can alsoExpand
Complete mitochondrial genomes from the ferns Ophioglossum californicum and Psilotum nudum are highly repetitive with the largest organellar introns.
Currently, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are available from all major land plant lineages except ferns. Sequencing of fern mitogenomes could shed light on the major evolutionaryExpand
Evolution of Plant Mitochondrial Intron-Encoded Maturases: Frequent Lineage-Specific Loss and Recurrent Intracellular Transfer to the Nucleus
Among land plants, mitochondrial and plastid group II introns occasionally encode proteins called maturases that are important for splicing. Angiosperm nuclear genomes also encode maturases that areExpand
High and Variable Rates of Repeat-Mediated Mitochondrial Genome Rearrangement in a Genus of Plants
For 30 years, it has been clear that angiosperm mitochondrial genomes evolve rapidly in sequence arrangement (i.e., synteny), yet absolute rates of rearrangement have not been measured in any plantExpand
Variable Frequency of Plastid RNA Editing among Ferns and Repeated Loss of Uridine-to-Cytidine Editing from Vascular Plants
The distinct distribution and abundance of C-to-U and U-to-C RNA editing among land plants suggest that these two processes originated and evolve independently, but the paucity of information fromExpand
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