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We present a multi-functional electroporation method for delivery of biomolecule utilizing a high-density distributed electrode network (HDEN) under tri-phase electric stimulation. The HDEN device, with which drastic pH change during the electroporation was avoided,was demonstrated to be highly effective for transfection of not only DNA plasmids and small(More)
Continuous cell electroporation is an appealing non-viral approach for genetically transfecting a large number of cells. Yet the traditional macro-scale devices suffer from the unsatisfactory transfection efficiency and/or cell viability due to their high voltage, while the emerging microfluidic electroporation devices is still limited by their low cell(More)
Electroporation has been widely used in delivering foreign biomolecules into cells, but there is still much room for improvement, such as cell viability and integrity. In this manuscript, we investigate the distribution and the toxicity of pH changes during electroporation, which significantly decreases cell viability. A localized pH gradient forms between(More)
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