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BACKGROUND Although heavy smoking has been associated with impulsivity in humans, it is not clear whether poor impulse control represents a risk factor in the etiology of nicotine dependence. METHODS To address this issue, rats were selected on the basis of individual differences in impulsivity in the delayed reward task (impulsive choice) and the(More)
The present study shows that the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A attenuated responding for both nicotine- and sucrose-associated stimuli in a long-term extinction-reinstatement model. The results suggest that endocannabinoids play a general role in modulating cue reactivity or conditioned reinforcement following prolonged abstinence(More)
Nicotine-associated paraphernalia such as cigarettes and ashtrays are potent smoking relapse triggers. In addition to these discrete cues, environmental contexts previously associated with smoking elicit strong cigarette craving, indicating that contextual stimuli also contribute to high smoking relapse rates. Nonetheless, little is known about the precise(More)
Treatment of the most widely abused drugs, nicotine and alcohol, is hampered by high rates of relapse. Varenicline tartrate, an α4β2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is currently prescribed as a smoking cessation aid. However, there is emerging evidence that it may also modulate alcohol seeking and cognitive functioning in rats. As preclinical data on(More)
Lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and other blood cells can be distinguished on the basis of their forward (FSC) and sideward (SSC) light scatter properties and their expression of CD45 and CD14. A FSC,SSC gate can be set to include > 95% of the lymphocytes using a "back gating" procedure on the CD45+, CD14- cells. However, nonlymphoid cells such as(More)
BACKGROUND We developed a technique, in vivo binding of immunoglobulins in the platelet immunofluorescence test (IVBI-PIFT), that detects immunoglobulins bound in vivo to transfused platelets. The visually scored results of this technique, however, are susceptible to interobserver variation. We describe a more objective method to generate results in(More)
PURPOSE The development of complex radiation treatment schemes emphasizes the need for advanced QA analysis methods to ensure patient safety. One such tool is the Delta4 DVH Anatomy software, where the patient dose is reconstructed from phantom measurements. Deviations in the measured dose are transferred to the patient anatomy and their clinical impact is(More)
A sudden decrease in milk yield, increased respiratory rate and occasional coughing were observed in dairy cows on two farms in spring 1991. Pigs were also kept on these farms, and pastures grazed by the cattle had been fertilised with pig slurry. Laboratory investigations of some of the cattle showed eosinophilia and high ELISA titres of antibodies against(More)
We present a time-saving and objective flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against platelets, granulocytes or lymphocytes using a reconstituted mixture of these cell populations. Platelets, granulocytes and lymphocytes could be distinguished on the basis of their forward (FSC) and sideways (SSC) light(More)