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There is now evidence approaching, if not having already surpassed, overwhelming in support of microglial cells as macrophages. Consistent with this cellular identity, they appear to arise from monocytes in developing brain where amoeboid microglia function in removing cell death-associated debris and in regulating gliogenesis. In normal adult tissue,(More)
Consistent with the recent characterization of microglial cells as macrophages, an overall picture for the unique function of these cells in CNS tissue has developed. The microglia are derived from blood monocytes that migrate into the tissue during fetal development and subsequently remain after complete formation of the blood-brain barrier. These(More)
Surface adhesion of bacteria generally occurs in the presence of shear stress, and the lifetime of receptor bonds is expected to be shortened in the presence of external force. However, by using Escherichia coli expressing the lectin-like adhesin FimH and guinea pig erythrocytes in flow chamber experiments, we show that bacterial attachment to target cells(More)
The Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesive protein, FimH, mediates shear-dependent binding to mannosylated surfaces via force-enhanced allosteric catch bonds, but the underlying structural mechanism was previously unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of FimH incorporated into the multiprotein fimbrial tip, where the anchoring (pilin) domain of FimH(More)
Biosynthesis of acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid was investigated in primary cultures derived from embryonic rat cerebral cortex. The cortical cultures contained a mixture of neurons and non-neuronal cells. Cortical neurons were viable for at least 2 months in vitro. The cultures accumulated [3H]choline from the medium and synthesized(More)
The utilization of tissue culture in neurobiological studies is discussed for all phyla phylogenetically preceding Phylum Arthropoda. Only two phyla, Mollusca and Annelida, are represented in such studies. The members of Phylum Mollusca which have been so investigated are Aplysia, Helisoma and Lymnaea. The mollusc Aplysia has been used to investigate(More)
Pericytes are a unique cell group intimately associated with the vasculature and that appear to be present in most tissues. Their presence is generally considered to be restricted to the microvessels - arterioles, venules and particularly capillaries, where there is little or no smooth muscle. Morphologically, the pericytes exhibit a small, oval cell body(More)
Three major functional roles have been ascribed to pericytes associated with central nervous system microvasculature-contractility, regulation o f endothelial cell activity, and macrophage activity. A host of different cell factors and signalling agents appear to be involved with these cellular functions, some effecting the pericyte and others produced by(More)
Brain tissue appears to contain several distinct types of macrophages. An effort is made here to present a description of the complete cohort of macrophages and sources of phagocytic activity in this tissue. Initially, the criteria and methods used for the identification of tissue macrophages in general are considered. These include some morphological and(More)
Functional properties of ramified microglia were investigated in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortical cells. These microglia could be readily identified in both fixed and living cultures through previously established features. Based on their destruction by 5 mM L-leucine methyl ester, a high level of intrinsic endocytotic activity was established.(More)