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Celecoxib (Celebrex), an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2; EC 1.14.99.1), is widely used in the treatment of chronic inflammation and pain. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the testis, where it is responsible for prostaglandin production, so inhibition of this enzyme should have effects on testicular function.(More)
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a critical early mediator of acute inflammation. Activin A release coincides with the release of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The source of circulating activin A during acute inflammation has not been identified and the(More)
Activin A, a transforming growth factor-β family cytokine, plays a crucial role in regulating the onset and severity of many inflammatory conditions, such as acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Activin A is also implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterised by insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and chronic elevation of(More)
In the hemopoietic compartment, IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 receptors are major transducers of survival signals; however, the receptor-proximal events that determine this vital function have not been defined. We have found that IL-3 stimulation induces phosphorylation of Ser-585 of beta(c). This promotes the association of phospho-Ser-585 of beta(c) with 14-3-3(More)
Prostaglandins (PGs), particularly PGE(2), have been implicated in the control of testicular steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and local immunity. However, virtually nothing is known about the expression or activity of the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PTGSs; also referred to as the cyclooxygenases), the specific rate-limiting enzymes responsible(More)
A better understanding of immunity to influenza virus is needed to generate cross-protective vaccines. Engagement of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) Abs by NK cells leads to killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines. ADCC Abs may target more conserved influenza virus Ags compared with neutralizing Abs.(More)
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, increases in the circulation within 1 h after administration of bacterial LPS. To clarify the origins of this rapid increase, the distribution of activin A and its binding protein, follistatin, and their production following LPS treatment, were assessed in adult male mice. In untreated mice,(More)
The activins are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily with broad and complex effects on cell growth and differentiation. Activin A has long been known to be a critical regulator of inflammation and immunity, and similar roles are now emerging for activin B, with which it shares 65% sequence homology. These molecules and their binding(More)
The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (Cu-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are essential for the regulation of intracellular copper homeostasis. In this report we describe new roles for glutathione (GSH) and glutaredoxin1 (GRX1) in Cu homeostasis through their regulation of Cu-ATPase activity. GRX1 is a thiol oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible(More)
The ability of the rodent testis to tolerate graft alloantigens and spermatogenic cell autoantigens is well known. The mechanisms underlying this "immune privilege" are poorly understood, but the numerous resident TMs have been implicated. Although it has been assumed that TMs display a phenotype consistent with immune privilege, this has not been formally(More)