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BACKGROUND The foreign-born population bears a disproportionate health burden from tuberculosis, with a rate of active tuberculosis 20 times that of the non-Aboriginal Canadian-born population, and could therefore benefit from tuberculosis screening programs. We reviewed evidence to determine the burden of tuberculosis in immigrant populations, to assess(More)
BACKGROUND Average tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates are high in Canadian Aboriginal communities, but there is significant variability within this group. OBJECTIVE To determine whether local history of post-contact TB epidemics is predictive of contemporary epidemiology among Aboriginal communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS TB incidence,(More)
The Roche Amplicor Mycobacterium tuberculosis PCR test (RMtb-PCR) was compared with mycobacterial culture, with the BACTEC 460 system and inoculation on Lowenstein-Jensen media. Results were interpreted with an adjusted "gold standard" incorporating clinical diagnosis. A total of 1,480 clinical specimens from 1,155 patients, including tissues and fluids, as(More)
Reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is well recognized as an adverse event associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) therapy. The strengths and weaknesses of current techniques for detecting LTBI in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis have not been fully examined. T(More)
BACKGROUND Completion of treatment of active cases of tuberculosis (TB) is the most important priority of TB control programs. This study was carried out to assess treatment completion for active cases of pulmonary TB in Toronto. METHODS Consecutive cases of culture-proven pulmonary TB were obtained from the microbiology laboratories of 5(More)
Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6(Quebec)(More)
The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS) is an observational, open dynamic cohort of people who are receiving medical care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Ontario, Canada. Established in the mid-1990s, the OCS has its roots in AIDS activists' demands for research that would improve the quality of life of people living with(More)
BACKGROUND Ensuring that people living with HIV are accessing and staying in care is vital to achieving optimal health outcomes including antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. We sought to characterize engagement in HIV care among participants of a large clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada, from 2001 to 2011. METHODS The Ontario HIV Treatment Network(More)
BACKGROUND Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS Data(More)
A newly described cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), that activates naive CD4 T cells, has recently been shown to be an anti-HIV cytokine. However, the effect of HIV infection on IL-27 expression has not been characterized. We found that clinical characteristics, including HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and CD4 T cell counts, were associated(More)