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Toxicological data are an important aspect of tobacco product characterization. In this study, TPM (Total Particulate Matter) (three replicates) was collected from cigarettes [five brands, ISO conditions: puff volume, 35 mL; duration, 2s; interval, 60s (35/2/60)], cigars (two brands, 45/2/30), cigarillos (two brands, 35/2/60), bidis (two brands, 45/2/30),(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether there are any differences in salivary flow rates and saliva composition that may contribute to the reported increase in caries prevalence in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. SETTING The sialochemistry of children with JIA has rarely been investigated. METHODS(More)
Previous phylogenetic analyses of learning and memory in an opisthobranch lineage uncovered a correlation between two learning-related neuromodulatory traits and their associated behavioral phenotypes. In particular, serotonin-induced increases in sensory neuron spike duration and excitability, which are thought to underlie several facilitatory forms of(More)
There is a history for the use of in vitro bioassays to assess the toxicological properties of mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). The results described in the literature were, for the most part, obtained with MSS collected under Federal Trade Commission (FTC) or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) conditions. However, numerous studies have(More)
The ability of a range of potential inhibitors to affect the catalytic activity or binding of dextran by a glucosyltransferase (GTF-I) that synthesises insoluble alpha1,3-linked glucan was tested. Acarbose, deoxynojirimycin, N-dodecyldeoxynojirimycin and Tris, which are thought to interfere with the active site of the enzyme of GTF and related glycosidases,(More)
UNLABELLED There is some evidence that plaque can adapt to regular exposure to some bulk sweeteners, leading to increased metabolism and acidogenic potential of the sweetener. This potential for adaptation varies between non-sugar sweeteners and has important implications for manufacturers of food, confectionery and medicines used long-term. Maltitol (99%(More)
Representative strains of oral streptococci, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were incubated overnight with lactulose or other carbohydrates and the final pH recorded. Most bacteria tested were able to metabolize lactulose with the exception of strains of Streptococcus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lact. fermentum. Streptococcus mutans produced(More)
Urine was collected over 24 h from children aged 4 years in Sri Lanka and England. Fifty-three children were from Dambulla, Sri Lanka, and 44 from Newcastle, England, both localities receiving drinking water containing 0.8-1.1 mgF/l. Urine volume was measured immediately after the 24-hour collection and samples of the collection from each child were frozen(More)