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Recent behavioral experiments examining the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia have revealed inhibitory effects of strong tail shock, a stimulus commonly used as an unconditioned stimulus in studies of associative and nonassociative learning in Aplysia. We utilized a reduced preparation to perform a cellular analysis of tail shock-induced inhibition in the(More)
The pattern of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of individuals of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris harboring polymorphid cystacanths was compared to the pattern seen in individuals not infected with acanthocephalans. Ventral nerve cords from both parasitized and nonparasitized amphipods showed the same bilateral pair of(More)
Although sensitization-related changes in the neural circuitry of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia are well studied, relatively few studies address the organization of the modulatory components of sensitization. In particular, it is not known whether individual modulatory loci can simultaneously influence multiple reflex circuits. There is, however, evidence(More)
Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Tan and Colleagues (2005-2012) have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists, and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area(More)
The marine mollusc Aplysia has proven very useful for a mechanistic analysis of behavioral modification. Among the stimuli used to modify the behavior of Aplysia, a noxious stimulus, tail shock, is one of the most effective. In addition to the extensively analyzed facilitatory effects of tail shock, recent work has demonstrated that it also produces marked(More)
Technological advances that involve human sensorimotor processes can have both intended and unintended effects on the central nervous system (CNS). This mini review focuses on the use of virtual environments (VE) to augment brain functions by enhancing perception, eliciting automatic motor behavior, and inducing sensorimotor adaptation. VE technology is(More)
A recent phylogenetic analysis of two learning-related neuromodulatory traits in mechanosensory neurons of species related to the marine mollusk Aplysia californica identified one species, Dolabrifera dolabrifera, which lacked both neuromodulatory traits. Since these traits are thought to contribute importantly to certain forms of learning and memory in the(More)
Sex change in the Mollusca is almost exclusively protandric (male to female), and has only been reported among gastropods and bivalves. The adaptive value of protandry in these two classes most likely relates to the limited availability of females, and the consequent size-independent nature of male reproductive success (versus the size-dependent nature of(More)
There is a history for the use of in vitro bioassays to assess the toxicological properties of mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). The results described in the literature were, for the most part, obtained with MSS collected under Federal Trade Commission (FTC) or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) conditions. However, numerous studies have(More)
Modulation of the strength of siphon and tail withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia involves, in part, changes in the sensory neurons that initiate these reflexes. Different observations and experiments on modulation in siphon and tail sensory neurons together contribute to the working model of mechanisms of learning and memory in Aplysia, yet no direct comparison(More)