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Early indicators for nanoparticle-derived adverse health effects should provide a relative measure for cytotoxicity of nanomaterials in comparison to existing toxicological data. We have therefore evaluated a human mesothelioma and a rodent fibroblast cell line for in vitro cytotoxicity tests using seven industrially important nanoparticles. Their response(More)
The urgent need for toxicological studies on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has arisen from the rapidly emerging applications of CNTs well beyond material science and engineering. In order to provide a basis for comparison to existing epidemiological data, we have investigated CNTs at various degrees of agglomeration using an in vitro cytotoxicity study with human(More)
The chemical and catalytic activity of nanoparticles has strongly contributed to the current tremendous interest in engineered nanomaterials and often serves as a guiding principle for the design of functional materials. Since it has most recently become evident that such active materials can enter into cells or organisms, the present study investigates the(More)
AIM To investigate the mechanical, chemical and structural alterations of human root dentine following exposure to ascending sodium hypochlorite concentrations. METHODOLOGY Three-point bending tests were carried out on standardized root dentine bars (n = 8 per group, sectioned from sound extracted human third molar teeth) to evaluate their flexural(More)
Quantitative studies on the uptake of nanoparticles into biological systems should consider simultaneous agglomeration, sedimentation, and diffusion at physiologically relevant concentrations to assess the corresponding risks of nanomaterials to human health. In this paper, the transport and uptake of industrially important cerium oxide nanoparticles, into(More)
Metal nanoparticles have distinctly different chemical and physical properties than currently investigated oxides. Since pure metallic nanoparticles are igniting at air, carbon stabilized copper nanoparticles were used as representative material for this class. Using copper as a representative example, we compare the cytotoxicity of copper metal(More)
Bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesized by flame spray synthesis were tested for their remineralization capabilities in vitro. After artificial demineralization with EDTA, human dentin was treated with 20-50nm size bioactive glass nanoparticles or a micrometer-sized, commercial reference material (PerioGlas) for up to 30 days. The degree of(More)
For tissue engineering of critical size bone grafts, nanocomposites are getting more and more attractive due to their controllable physical and biological properties. We report in vitro and in vivo behaviour of an electrospun nanocomposite based on poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (PLGA/a-CaP) seeded with human(More)
Metallic copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a bottom-up approach, and in situ coated with protective shells of graphene in order to get a metal nanopowder of high air stability and chemical inertness. Using an amphiphilic surfactant, a water-based copper nanocolloid could be prepared and successfully printed onto a polymer substrate by conventional(More)
The rapidly increasing production of engineered nanoparticles has raised questions regarding their environmental impact and their mobility to overcome biological important barriers. Nanoparticles were found to cross different mammalian barriers, which is summarized under the term translocation. The present work investigates the uptake and translocation of(More)