Wendel L. Nelson

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Itraconazole (ITZ) is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A in vivo. However, unbound plasma concentrations of ITZ are much lower than its reported in vitro Ki, and no clinically significant interactions would be expected based on a reversible mechanism of inhibition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for the in vitro-in vivo discrepancy. The(More)
Three secondary amines desipramine (DES), (S)-fluoxetine [(S)-FLX], and N-desmethyldiltiazem (MA) undergo N-hydroxylation to the corresponding secondary hydroxylamines [N-hydroxydesipramine, (S)-N-hydroxyfluoxetine, and N-hydroxy-N-desmethyldiltiazem] by cytochromes P450 2C11, 2C19, and 3A4, respectively. The expected primary amine products,(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of clonidine during pregnancy compared with previously published data in nonpregnant subjects. Serial blood and urine samples were collected in 17 women during mid to late pregnancy over one steady-state dosing interval to determine clonidine noncompartmental pharmacokinetic(More)
Itraconazole (ITZ) is metabolized in vitro to three inhibitory metabolites: hydroxy-itraconazole (OH-ITZ), keto-itraconazole (keto-ITZ), and N-desalkyl-itraconazole (ND-ITZ). The goal of this study was to determine the contribution of these metabolites to drug-drug interactions caused by ITZ. Six healthy volunteers received 100 mg ITZ orally for 7 days, and(More)
Itraconazole (ITZ) has three chiral centers and is administered clinically as a mixture of four stereoisomers. This study evaluated stereoselectivity in ITZ metabolism. In vitro experiments were carried out using heterologously expressed CYP3A4. Only (2R,4S,2'R)-ITZ and (2R,4S,2'S)-ITZ were metabolized by CYP3A4 to hydroxy-ITZ, keto-ITZ, and N-desalkyl-ITZ.(More)
A series of 1"-mono-, di-, and trifluorinated analogs of propranolol and related steric congeners was prepared, and their metabolism was examined in recombinant-expressed CYP2D6. The structural changes in this series of compounds, principally added fluorines and methyl groups in the 1"-position of the N-isopropyl group, provided compounds that varied in(More)
In an effort to investigate the metabolic basis of previously reported pharmacokinetic interactions between beta-adrenergic antagonists and calcium channel blockers, the effects of verapamil on the oxidative metabolism of metoprolol were studied in microsomes isolated from four human livers. Deuterium-labeled pseudoracemic metoprolol was used to(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule that performs multiple functions required to maintain cellular viability. It is also used in the treatment of some cancers. Enzymes in the CYP26 family are thought to be responsible for the elimination of RA, and CYP26A1 appears to serve the most critical functions in this family. In spite of its(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. atRA is also used as a drug, and synthetic atRA analogs and inhibitors of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism have been developed. The hepatic clearance of atRA is mediated primarily by CYP26A1, but design of CYP26A1 inhibitors is hindered by lack of information on CYP26A1 structure and(More)
Propranolol, its 1"-mono-, di-, and trifluorinated analogs, and other related compounds were analyzed under electrospray ionization ion trap collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID) and electron impact (EI) conditions. Interesting trends were observed in the fragment ions formed in both cases. Under ESI conditions, the abundances of product ions easily(More)