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Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, originally introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995 [3], is a population-based evolutionary computation technique. It is motivated by the behavior of organisms such as fishing schooling and bird flock. In a PSO system, each particle corresponding to individual of the organism is a candidate solution to the(More)
BACKGROUND An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) included 1149 people in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China, in 2007: three children died. OBJECTIVES To characterize the pathogens responsible for this outbreak and to analyze their genetic features. STUDY DESIGN A total of 233 clinical specimens were collected from 105 hospitalized(More)
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a common contagious disease that usually affects children, is normally mild but can have life-threatening manifestations. It can be caused by enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackieviruses and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) with highly variable clinical manifestations. In the spring of 2008, a large, unprecedented HFMD(More)
Based on the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm, we formulate the philosophy of QPSO and introduce a so-called mainstream thought of the population to evaluate the search scope of a particle and thus propose a novel parameter control method of QPSO. After that, we test the revised QPSO algorithm on several benchmark functions and(More)
Emerging epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become a serious concern in mainland China. It caused 126 and 353 fatalities in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The epidemiologic and pathogenic data of the outbreak collected from national laboratory network and notifiable disease surveillance system. To(More)
Gene expression profiles from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque samples provide clues about genetic regulatory changes in human and other catarrhine primate brains. The ACC, a cerebral neocortical region, has human-specific histological features. Physiologically, an individual's ACC displays increased activity(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular organelle responsible for protein folding and assembly, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and calcium storage. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive intracellular stress response to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER. In this study, we show that the most conserved UPR sensor(More)
Keywords: PSO QPSO Mean best position Weight parameter WQPSO a b s t r a c t Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is a global convergence guaranteed algorithms, which outperforms original PSO in search ability but has fewer parameters to control. In this paper, we propose an improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with(More)
We first briefly review the state of the art of digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM) with numerical reconstruction and then discuss some technical issues, such as lateral and depth resolution, depth of field, twin image, four-dimensional tracking, and reconstruction algorithm. We then present a host of examples from microfluidics and biology of(More)
Genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. To investigate the genetic characterization and the potential recombination of enterovirus 71 (EV71) circulating in China, we determined the 16 complete genome sequences of EV71 isolated from Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients during the large scale outbreak and non-outbreak years(More)