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We identified and characterized a novel virus, designated rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV), in rex rabbits farmed in China. Rabbit HEV is genetically related to but distinct from other known mammalian HEVs and avian HEV and may represent a novel genotype. To evaluate the spread and genetic variation of rabbit HEV, a total of 1094 serum samples were collected(More)
Raman spectroscopy has becoming a practical tool for rapid in vivo tissue diagnosis. This paper provides an overview on the latest development of real-time in vivo Raman systems for cancer detection. Instrumentation, data handling, as well as oncology applications of Raman techniques were covered. Optic fiber probes designs for Raman spectroscopy were(More)
Glycans on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) play an important role in viral infection and evasion of neutralization by antibodies. In this study, all 25 potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) on the HIV-1 CRF07_BC Env, FE, were mutated individually to study the effect of their removal on viral infectivity, virion(More)
Among the neutralizing antibody evaluation assays, the single-cycle pseudovirus infection assay is high-throughput and can provide rapid, sensitive and reproducible measurements after a single cycle of infection. Cell counts, pseudovirus inoculation levels, amount of diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DEAE-dextran), and the nonspecific effects of serum and plasma(More)
BACKGROUND The vaccinia virus Guang9 strain (VG9), derived from the vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) has been found to be less virulent than VTT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To investigate whether VG9 could be a potential replicating virus vector, the TK genes in VG9 and VTT were replaced with the HIV-1 envelope gene via homologous recombination,(More)
In differentiated human cells, primary cilia fulfill essential functions in converting mechanical or chemical stimuli into intracellular signals. Formation and maintenance of cilia require multiple functions associated with the centriole-derived basal body, from which axonemal microtubules grow and which assembles a gate to maintain the specific ciliary(More)
Optical microangiography (OMAG) has been extensively utilized to study three-dimensional tissue vasculature in vivo. However, with the limited image resolution (∼10  μm ) of the commonly used systems, some concerns were raised: (1) whether OMAG is capable of providing the imaging of capillary vessels that are of an average diameter of ∼6  μm ; (2) if yes,(More)
Fecal based tests have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyps, the precursor lesions to colorectal cancer (CRC). Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using silver nanoparticles as substrate is a multiplexed analytical technique capable of detecting biomolecules with high sensitivity. This study utilizes SERS to analyze blood plasma(More)
A simple and flexible route is presented to fabricate a gold binary-structured ordered array by one step based on non-shadow deposition on a plasma etching-induced dualistic monolayer colloidal crystal. Such a Au binary-structure array is built of hexagonally arranged nanoshells and nanorings which stand between two adjacent nanoshells. Six gold nanorings(More)
A novel approach of dynamic graphic software watermark is proposed. In this scheme, many fake watermarks created through encoding multi-constant, which's structure is similar to the only true one's, are introduced to enhance the stealth and anti-attack ability of dynamic graph watermark and keep software from sabotage. Meanwhile, a detailed analysis in(More)