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Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines without the need of human intervention. To support such a large number of autonomous devices, the M2M system architecture needs to be extremely power and spectrally efficient. This article thus briefly reviews the features of M2M services in the third(More)
—A hybrid system of cellular mode and device-to-device (D2D) mode is considered in this paper, where the cellular uplink resource is reused by the D2D transmission. In order to maximize the overall system performance, the mutual interference between cellular and D2D subsystems has to be addressed. Here, two mechanisms are proposed to solve the problem: One(More)
—In this paper, a novel OFDM-CDMA system with joint time-frequency spreading methods is proposed. The average bit error probability of the proposed system using maximum-ratio combining (MRC) is derived for a frequency-selective fading channel and that of conventional MC-CDMA is also presented for comparison. Numerical analysis and simulation results(More)