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The seeds of plants represent the anlage of the next generation and are vital to their existence. Melatonin has been identified in the leaves and flowers of plants but not in seeds. In this study, we examined the seeds of 15 edible plants for the presence of melatonin which was extracted using cold ethanol. Melatonin was initially identified by(More)
A potential new metabolic pathway of melatonin biotransformation is described in this investigation. Melatonin was found to directly scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) to form N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and, thereafter this compound could be enzymatically converted to N(1)-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine by catalase. The structures of these(More)
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an endogenously produced indole found throughout the animal kingdom, was recently reported, using a variety of techniques, to be a scavenger of a number of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species both in vitro and in vivo. Initially, melation was discovered to directly scavenge the high toxic hydroxyl radical(More)
Mice deficient in CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) showed no overt abnormalities during development and early adulthood, but had a reduced lifespan and increased incidence of neoplastic changes in the liver. Greater than 70% of Sod1-/- mice developed liver nodules that were either nodular hyperplasia or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cross-sectional(More)
Calorie restriction (CR), a reduction of 10–40% in intake of a nutritious diet, is often reported as the most robust non-genetic mechanism to extend lifespan and healthspan. CR is frequently used as a tool to understand mechanisms behind ageing and age-associated diseases. In addition to and independently of increasing lifespan, CR has been reported to(More)
This brief resume summarizes the evidence which shows that melatonin is a significant free radical scavenger and antioxidant at both physiological and pharmacological concentrations in vivo. Surgical removal of the pineal gland, a procedure which lowers endogenous melatonin levels in the blood, exaggerates molecular damage due to free radicals during an(More)
Melatonin is a potent endogenous free radical scavenger, actions that are independent of its many receptor-mediated effects. In the last several years, hundreds of publications have confirmed that melatonin is a broad-spectrum antioxidant. Melatonin has been reported to scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (HO(.)), nitric oxide (NO(.)),(More)
The in vivo and in vitro effects of melatonin on quinolinic acid-induced oxidative damage in rat brain were determined. The concentrations of malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were assayed as an index of oxidatively damaged lipid. In in vitro experiments, the increase in malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals concentrations induced by quinolinic acid were(More)
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is an antioxidant defense enzyme that plays an important role in detoxification of oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Because oxidative stress is proposed to play a causal role in aging, we compared the life spans of Gpx4 heterozygous knockout mice (Gpx4(+/-) mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice). To our surprise, the median(More)
Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known complete renal carcinogen which induces lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in rat kidney. In this study, the in vivo and in vitro effects of melatonin on Fe-NTA-induced lipid and oxidative DNA damage were determined. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) were assayed as an(More)