Learn More
Ethylene inhibits nodulation in various legumes. In order to investigate strategies employed by Rhizobium to regulate nodulation, the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene was isolated and characterized from one of the ACC deaminase-producing rhizobia, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K. ACC deaminase degrades ACC, the immediate(More)
This is the first report documenting the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase in Rhizobium. This enzyme, previously found in free-living bacteria, yeast and fungi, degrades ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene in higher plants. Thirteen different rhizobial strains were examined by Southern hybridization, Western blots and ACC(More)
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic.(More)
The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant(More)
Various types of malignant tumor have been found to contain a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In this study, we sought to enrich CSCs from the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line SK-RC-42 using the sphere culture system and characterize their immunophenotype. We demonstrated that a subpopulation of SK-RC-42 cells were capable of growing as tumor(More)
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase has been found in various plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, including rhizobia. This enzyme degrades ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene, and thus decreases the biosynthesis of ethylene in higher plants. The ACC deaminase of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 128C53K was previously reported to be(More)
Type III secretion system (T3SS) is a specialized protein delivery system in gram-negative bacteria that injects proteins (called effectors) directly into the eukaryotic host cytosol and facilitates bacterial infection. For many plant and animal pathogens, T3SS is indispensable for disease development. Recently, T3SS has also been found in rhizobia and(More)
Bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system to secrete and translocate effector proteins into their hosts. The primary function of these effector proteins is believed to be the suppression of host defence responses or innate immunity. However, some effector proteins may be recognized by the host and consequently trigger a targeted immune(More)
Type III secreted effectors (T3SEs), such as Pseudomonas syringae HopZ1, are essential bacterial virulence proteins injected into the host cytosol to facilitate infection. However, few direct targets of T3SEs are known. Investigating the target(s) of HopZ1 in soybean, a natural P. syringae host, we find that HopZ1 physically interacts with the isoflavone(More)