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PURPOSE To study the effect of subtoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the expression and release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and to explore the relevant signal pathways. METHODS Cultured human RPE cells were stimulated with various subtoxic concentrations of H(2)O(2) for different periods.(More)
This paper proposes a fully distributed reactive power optimization algorithm that can obtain the global optimum of non-convex problems for distribution networks without a central coordinator. Second-order cone (SOC) relaxation is used to achieve exact convexification. A fully distributed algorithm is then formulated corresponding to the given division of(More)
Spinning reserve allocation is a critical problem for active power dispatch with large-scale wind power penetration. A risk-based reserve allocation method that accounts multiple control sub-area coordination is given in this paper. And a multi-objective optimization model is constructed to schedule the spinning generation reserve for online active power(More)
The Lagrange multiplier-based method is an effective network parameter error identification method. However, two full matrices with high-dimensions are involved in the calculation procedure; these create huge computational burdens for large-scale power systems. To solve this problem, a fast solution is proposed in this paper, where special treatment(More)
The operation of power systems has been complicated by the rapid diversification of loads. Analyzing load characteristics becomes necessary to different utilities in energy management systems to ensure the reliability of power systems. Here, we describe a method of analyzing and quantifying the load characteristics and introduce its application to pilot(More)
The branch flow based optimal power flow (OPF) problem in radially operated distribution networks can be exactly relaxed to a second order cone programming (SOCP) model without considering transformers. However, the introduction of nonlinear transformer models will make the OPF model non-convex. This letter presents an exact linearized transformer's OLTC(More)
This is an observational study of fluorescein angiography (FA) in consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Changhua Christian Hospital to investigate the peripheral retinal vascular patterns in those patients. All patients had their age, sex, axial length (AXL), and refraction status (RF) recorded. According to the findings in FA(More)