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Continuous space language models have recently demonstrated outstanding results across a variety of tasks. In this paper, we examine the vector-space word representations that are implicitly learned by the input-layer weights. We find that these representations are surprisingly good at capturing syntactic and semantic regularities in language, and that each(More)
We describe the WIKIQA dataset, a new publicly available set of question and sentence pairs, collected and annotated for research on open-domain question answering. Most previous work on answer sentence selection focuses on a dataset created using the TREC-QA data, which includes editor-generated questions and candidate answer sentences selected by matching(More)
We present a general framework for semantic role labeling. The framework combines a machine learning technique with an integer linear programming based inference procedure, which incorporates linguistic and structural constraints into a global decision process. Within this framework, we study the role of syntactic parsing information in semantic role(More)
We present a system for the semantic role labeling task. The system combines a machine learning technique with an inference procedure based on integer linear programming that supports the incorporation of linguistic and structural constraints into the decision process. The system is tested on the data provided in CoNLL2004 shared task on semantic role(More)
We present an approach to semantic role labeling (SRL) that takes the output of multiple argument classifiers and combines them into a coherent predicateargument output by solving an optimization problem. The optimization stage, which is solved via integer linear programming, takes into account both the recommendation of the classifiers and a set of problem(More)
We propose a novel semantic parsing framework for question answering using a knowledge base. We define a query graph that resembles subgraphs of the knowledge base and can be directly mapped to a logical form. Semantic parsing is reduced to query graph generation, formulated as a staged search problem. Unlike traditional approaches, our method leverages the(More)
We consider learning representations of entities and relations in KBs using the neural-embedding approach. We show that most existing models, including NTN (Socher et al., 2013) and TransE (Bordes et al., 2013b), can be generalized under a unified learning framework, where entities are low-dimensional vectors learned from a neural network and relations are(More)
In this paper, we study the answer sentence selection problem for question answering. Unlike previous work, which primarily leverages syntactic analysis through dependency tree matching, we focus on improving the performance using models of lexical semantic resources. Experiments show that our systems can be consistently and significantly improved with rich(More)
Representing documents by vectors that are independent of language enhances machine translation and multilingual text categorization. We use discriminative training to create a projection of documents from multiple languages into a single translingual vector space. We explore two variants to create these projections: Oriented Principal Component Analysis(More)
The typical processing paradigm in natural language processing is the “pipeline” approach, where learners are being used at one level, their outcomes are being used as features for a second level of predictions and so one. In addition to accumulating errors, it is clear that the sequential processing is a crude approximation to a process in which(More)