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Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly recognized IL-1 family member, is expressed by various tissues and cells. Since it can combine with chromosomes, IL-33 is regarded as an intracellular transcription repressor. Upon proinflammatory stimulation, it is released as an extracellular cytokine to function as an alarmin to dangerous signals. The IL-33 receptor is a(More)
Growing evidence indicates that chronic neuropathic pain is frequently accompanied by an array of psychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. Electroacupuncture (EA), as one therapy of traditional Chinese medicine, has displayed potent antidepressant-like effects in numerous clinical studies. The present study was designed to examine the possible(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish a proper experimental model of bone cancer pain in rat for acupuncture research, and observe the pain-relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and/or Celebrex on bone cancer pain in rats. METHODS The rat model of bone cancer pain was established by percutaneous direct puncture technique and inoculating the rat mammary gland(More)
The most frequent pain in patients with metastatic breast and prostate cancer is bone pain, which can be severe and difficult to treat. The mechanisms underlying this pain remain unclear. Here we investigated the role of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in the spinal cord in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we used an established rat(More)
Electroacupuncture (EA) can effectively control the exaggerated pain in humans with inflammatory disease and animals with experimental inflammatory pain. However, there have been few investigations on the effect of co-administration of EA and analgesics and the underlying synergistic mechanism. Using behavioral test, RT-PCR analysis, enzyme immunoassay(More)
It has been reported that remarkable and sustained activation of astrocytes and/or microglia occurs in cancer induced pain (CIP), which is different from neuropathic and inflammatory pain. The present study was designed to investigate the role of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induced glial neuroinflammation in cancer induced pain using a modified rat(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence indicates that nerve damage-initiated neuroinflammation and immune responses, which are evidenced by the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. This study investigated the role of spinal interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 in spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced(More)
The neuroinflammatory responses in the spinal cord following bone cancer development have been shown to play an important role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Lipoxins (LXs), endogenous lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids, represent a unique class of lipid mediators that possess a wide spectrum of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. In this study,(More)
UNLABELLED Although electroacupuncture (EA) has been proven to effectively relieve pain associated with arthritis, the underlying mechanism of EA analgesia requires further investigation. Here, the involvement of spinal neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in EA's analgesic effects on complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain was examined. The present(More)
The NLRP3 inflammasome, which consists of the NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptor 3) scaffold, the ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) adaptor and procaspase- 1, is assembled after the cytoplasmic LRRs (leucine-rich repeats) of NLRP3 sense pathogens or danger signals. The NLRP3 inflammasome(More)