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Complement-derived anaphylatoxins regulate immune and inflammatory responses through G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signalling. C5L2 (also known as GPR77) is a relatively new GPCR thought to be a non-signalling receptor binding to C5a, on the basis of sequence information and experimental evidence. Here we show, using gene targeting, that C5L2(More)
The stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the release of critical proinflammatory cytokines that are necessary to activate potent immune responses. LPS/TLR4 signaling has been intensively studied in the past few years. Here we review molecules involved in TLR4-mediated signaling, including players that are involved(More)
Recent studies suggest that nuclear factor kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) is suppressed through constitutive proteasome-mediated degradation regulated by TRAF2, TRAF3 and cIAP1 or cIAP2. Here we demonstrated that the degradation of NIK occurs upon assembly of a regulatory complex through TRAF3 recruitment of NIK and TRAF2 recruitment of cIAP1 and cIAP2. In(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation is central to immunity, wherein the activation of the TLR9 subfamily members TLR9 and TLR7 results in the robust induction of type I IFNs (IFN-alpha/beta) by means of the MyD88 adaptor protein. However, it remains unknown how the TLR signal "input" can be processed through MyD88 to "output" the induction of the IFN genes.(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) by interacting with the LDL receptor (LDLR) and is an attractive therapeutic target for LDL-C lowering. We have generated a neutralizing anti-PCSK9 antibody, mAb1, that binds to an epitope on PCSK9 adjacent to the region required for LDLR interaction. In vitro,(More)
Cellular caspase-8 (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) was originally identified as an inhibitor of death-receptor signalling through competition with caspase-8 for recruitment to FAS-associated via death domain (FADD). More recently, it has been determined that both cFLIP and caspase-8 are required for the survival and proliferation of T cells(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and members of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, share homologies in their cytoplasmic domains called Toll/IL-1R/plant R gene homology (TIR) domains. Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6(More)
The immediate-early gene Nur77, which encodes an orphan nuclear receptor, is rapidly induced by various stress stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Nur77 has been implicated in mediating apoptosis, particularly in T cells and tumor cells. We report here that Nur77 can play a role in antagonizing apoptosis in TNF signaling. Nur77 expression is(More)
Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF), a pleiotropic cytokine, triggers physiological and pathological responses in several organs. Here we show that deletion of the mouse gene Timp3 resulted in an increase in TNF-alpha converting enzyme activity, constitutive release of TNF and activation of TNF signaling in the liver. The increase in TNF in Timp3(-/-) mice(More)
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) and the inducible IkappaB kinase (IKK-i) have been shown recently to activate interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), the primary transcription factor regulating induction of type I IFNs. Here, we have compared the role and specificity of TBK1 in the type I IFN response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyI:C, and viral(More)