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We present data demonstrating the gene expression of substance P (SP) and its receptor in human peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes. Using reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, preprotachykinin-A (substance-P) mRNA is detected in human peripheral blood-isolated lymphocytes. Among the alpha, beta, and gamma transcripts of the SP(More)
A newly developed real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction assay for quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in human plasma and serum was applied. A pair of primers and a probe (molecular beacon) were designed that are specific for the recognition of a highly conservative 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) in HCV genome. HCV real-time RT-PCR assay had a(More)
Substance P, the most abundant neurokinin in the CNS, is a major modulator of the immune system. We have examined the gene expression of substance P and its receptor in human fetal brain microglia. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting assay, the four isoforms of preprotachykinin-A gene transcripts (alpha, beta, gamma(More)
We have investigated the effects of SP on the constitutive and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) in both freshly isolated cord blood monocytes (FICBM) and cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). The cells were treated with SP at various concentrations (10(-14) to 10(-6) M)(More)
We have characterized preprotachykinin (PPT-A) gene transcript splicing products and identified a fourth isoform of PPT-A mRNA transcript in human peripheral blood-isolated monocytes and PBL. Using RT-PCR, Southern blot analysis and nucleotide sequencing analysis, we have identified the four isoforms of PPT-A transcripts (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in(More)
Substance P (SP) is a potent modulator of neuroimmunoregulation. SP receptors are present on human monocytes and T lymphocytes, and SP alters the function of these immune cells. We investigated the effects of SP on HIV-1 replication in latently infected human immune cells. SP significantly enhanced HIV-1 replication in the latently infected promonocytic(More)
We have investigated the effects of the substance P C-terminal octapeptide analogues [Pro4, Glu (OBzl)11] SP4-11, [Hyp4, Glu(OBzl)11] SP4-11, [cHyp4, Glu(OBzl)11] SP4-11 and [kPro4, Glu(OBzl)11] SP4-11 on the constitutive and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) in both freshly isolated human blood monocytes(More)
We examined the gene expression and regulation of type III human interferon (IFN), IFN-lambda, in human neuronal cells. Human neuronal cells expressed endogenous IFN-lambda1 but not IFN-lambda2/3. Upon the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 expressed in the neuronal cells by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (PolyI:C), both IFN-lambda1 and(More)
Elevated brain lactate has been observed by in vivo proton MRS in different pathological situations. The origin of this lactate remains controversial. The possibility that it was produced by the metabolism of phagocytic cells has been proposed. To investigate this hypothesis, the authors have employed high-resolution proton MRS to monitor changes in(More)
In an effort to facilitate the efficiency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and/or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in primary monocyte/macrophages in vitro, the effect of low-speed centrifugation was studied. The infectivity of three strains (Bal, Ada-M, and IIIB) of HIV-1 tested was significantly enhanced by centrifugal inoculation at a(More)