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Opioid addiction is a major social, economic, and medical problem worldwide. Long-term adverse consequences of chronic opiate exposure not only involve the individuals themselves but also their offspring. Adolescent maternal morphine exposure results in behavior and morphologic changes in the brain of their adult offspring. However, few studies investigate(More)
Depression is a common psychiatric disorder associated with chronic stress. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a growth factor that serves important roles in the brain during development and at adulthood. Here, the role of IGF2 expression in the hippocampus was investigated in a rat model of depression. A chronic restraint stress (CRS) model of(More)
The Taiwan Join Commission on Hospital Accreditation identified pressure ulcers as an important clinical care indicator in 2011. Pressure ulcers are a particularly critical medical care issue in hospital intensive care units. Pressure ulcers can influence patient physiology in terms of greater perceived pain, elevated infection and sepsis incidence,(More)
Previous studies have indicated involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in heterosexual interactions among rats. Very few studies, however, have focused its role in isosexual social interactions. We studied the male rat's isosexual social interactional behavior using (i) the three-chambered social interaction box and (ii)(More)
In highly complex social settings, an animal’s motivational drive to pursue an object depends not only on the intrinsic properties of the object, but also on whether the decision-making animal perceives an object as being the most desirable among others. Mimetic desire refers to a subject’s preference for objects already possessed by another subject. To(More)
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