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The cytochrome CYP3A gene products, expressed in mammalian liver, are essential for the metabolism of lipophilic substrates, including endogenous steroid hormones and prescription drugs. CYP3A enzymes are extremely versatile and are inducible by many of their natural and xenobiotic substrates. Consequently, they form the molecular basis for many clinical(More)
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene products such as CYP3A and CYP2B are essential for the metabolism of steroid hormones and xenochemicals including prescription drugs. Nuclear receptor SXR/PXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor/pregnenolone X receptor) has been shown both biochemically and genetically to activate CYP3A genes, while similar studies have(More)
Hepatic hydroxylation is an essential step in the metabolism and excretion of bile acids and is necessary to avoid pathologic conditions such as cholestasis and liver damage. In this report, we demonstrate that the human xenobiotic receptor SXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor) and its rodent homolog PXR (pregnane X receptor) serve as functional bile acid(More)
The roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C (PLC) in chemoattractant-elicited responses were studied in mice lacking these key enzymes. PI3Kgamma was required for chemoattractant-induced production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns (3,4,5)P3] and has an important role in chemoattractant-induced superoxide production(More)
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the effects of the calcemic hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. We show that VDR also functions as a receptor for the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA), which is hepatotoxic and a potential enteric carcinogen. VDR is an order of magnitude more sensitive to LCA and its metabolites than are other(More)
The nuclear receptor PXR (pregnane X receptor) protects the body from hepatotoxicity of secondary bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) by inducing expression of the hydroxylating cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A and promoting detoxification. We found that activation of PXR also increases the activity and gene expression of the phase II conjugating enzyme(More)
Through a multiplex promoter spanning 218 kb, the phase II UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1) gene encodes at least eight differently regulated mRNAs whose protein products function as the principal means to eliminate a vast array of steroids, heme metabolites, environmental toxins, and drugs. The orphan nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and(More)
A yeast two-hybrid screen using the conserved carboxyl terminus of the nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT as a bait led to the isolation of a novel human gene termed SHARP (SMRT/HDAC1 Associated Repressor Protein). SHARP is a potent transcriptional repressor whose repression domain (RD) interacts directly with SMRT and at least five members of the NuRD(More)
Nuclear receptors have been postulated to regulate gene expression via their association with histone acetylase (HAT) or deacetylase complexes. We report that hormone induces dramatic hyperacetylation at endogenous target genes through the HAT activity of p300/CBP. Unexpectedly, this hyperacetylation is transient and coincides with attenuation of(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) was isolated as a xenosensor regulating xenobiotic responses. In this study, we show that PXR plays an endobiotic role by impacting lipid homeostasis. Expression of an activated PXR in the livers of transgenic mice resulted in an increased hepatic deposit of triglycerides. This PXR-mediated lipid accumulation was independent of(More)