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Interleukin-1β is a cytokine critically involved in immune and inflammatory responses. To extend its use as a component of avian vaccines, a circularly permuted chicken interleukin-1β was synthesized that maintains its activity after pre-incubation at high temperatures, unlike wild-type chicken interleukin-1β, which is irreversibly inactivated at high(More)
BACKGROUND Avian reovirus (ARV) is a member of the Orthoreovirus genus in the Reoviridae family. It is the etiological agent of several diseases, among which viral arthritis and malabsorption syndrome are the most commercially important, causing considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. Although a small but increasing number of reports have(More)
Receptor-binding and subsequent signal-activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) are essential to immune and proinflammatory responses. We mutated 12 residues to identify sites important for biological activity and/or receptor binding. Four of these mutants with mutations in loop 9 (T117A, E118K, E118A, E118R) displayed significantly reduced biological(More)