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Eight traditional subspecies of tiger (Panthera tigris),of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. To investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin(More)
The number of males per group is the most variable aspect of primate social organization and is often related to the monopolizability of females, which is mainly determined by the number of females per group and their reproductive synchrony. Colobines show both inter-specific and intra-specific variations in the number of males per group. Compared with(More)
There are few detailed descriptions of parturition behavior in wild primates. Here we report for the first time birth-related behaviors in a highly endangered colobine monkey endemic to southwest China, the white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus). We video recorded three complete birth events in three parturient females living in one reproductive(More)
A population census of white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) was conducted using sleeping-site counts and the line-transect method from July to August 2002 at the Longrui Karst Hills, Guangxi, China. This area had been the largest habitat of the langurs across their range before the 1990s. While our survey revealed 146 old sleeping-sites, no(More)
Infants of many primate species have extensive interactions with group members other than their mothers, which can affect an infant’s fitness. Patterns of nonmaternal infant handling vary according to the mother’s response as well as the number, sex, age, and dominance ranks of social partners. The primary goal of this study was to identify the basic(More)
Direct intervention in infant delivery by non-parturient individuals is a rare phenomenon in nonhuman primates. In contrast, birth assistance by other individuals, or the practice of midwifery, is universal among human societies and generally believed to be a behavior unique to our species. It has been proposed that the enlarged head of the human fetus and(More)
Many Asian colobine monkey species are suffering from habitat destruction and population size decline. There is a great need to understand their genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for effective species conservation. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a Critically Endangered colobine species endemic to the(More)
In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids(More)
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