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BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that exposure to road traffic is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. OBJECTIVES We aimed to identify specific traffic-related air pollutants that are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality to support evidence-based environmental policy making. (More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. METHODS A systematic review(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular comorbidities have a negative impact on the health status and prognosis of patients with COPD. We determined whether nocturnal noninvasive (positive) mechanical ventilation (NIMV) can improve heart rate variability (HRV), decrease circulating natriuretic peptide levels, and improve functional performance of patients with very(More)
CONTEXT Over the last 2 decades, many new pharmacological agents have been introduced to reduce the growing morbidity associated with asthma, but the long-term effects of these agents on exacerbations are unclear. OBJECTIVE To systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the long-term effects of inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting beta2 agonists,(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) are recommended for patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. However, their clinical benefits in various settings are uncertain. We undertook a systematic review and metaanalysis to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether gender mix might play a role in explaining the large variation of aspirin efficacy across(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports indicate that over the next decade rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women will exceed those in men in the western world, though in most jurisdictions, women continue to smoke less compared with men. Whether female adult smokers are biologically more susceptible to COPD is unknown. This study reviewed the(More)
Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of(More)
BACKGROUND Low-grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in conditions associated with reduced FEV(1). Active cigarette smoking, which is a leading risk factor for decreased FEV(1), can also independently induce systemic inflammation. STUDY OBJECTIVES To determine the independent contributions of active cigarette smoking and reduced FEV(1) (as well(More)
RATIONALE Small studies have suggested that inhaled corticosteroids can suppress systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of inhaled corticosteroids with or without long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonist on systemic biomarkers of inflammation. METHODS We conducted a double-blind randomized(More)