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The effect of chloroquine, a drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways, was studied in two retroviral systems: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV-A). With chloroquine treatment of virus-infected cells, significant size reduction of the cell- and virus-associated surface glycoproteins, gp90 of REV-A and(More)
Recent interest focused on the dynamics of HIV-1 replication in primary monocytes/macrophages and T-lymphocytes of the immune system, as well as the standardization of virological and immunological in vitro assays with primary isolates, provided the impetus for these studies. These types of studies have never been performed as they would occur in vivo,(More)
T cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in the containment of HIV-1 replication. Therefore, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 should be able to elicit high frequencies of virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The highly attenuated poxvirus-based vaccine candidate, NYVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env (NYVAC-SIV-gpe), has been shown to induce and/or(More)
Immunodominant epitopes are known to suppress a primary immune response to other antigenic determinants by a number of mechanisms. Many pathogens have used this strategy to subvert the immune response and may be a mechanism responsible for limited vaccine efficacies. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy appears to be complicated similarly by a limited, immunodominant,(More)
Prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not likely to eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) infection. Here we explore the effect of therapeutic immunization in the context of ART during primary infection using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV251) macaque model. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the highly attenuated poxvirus-based(More)
The identification of several simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIV(mac251)) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes recognized by CD8(+) T cells of infected rhesus macaques carrying the Mamu-A*01 molecule and the use of peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetrameric complexes enable the study of the frequency, breadth, functionality, and distribution of(More)
N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the transmembrane protein of baboon endogenous virus revealed an internal 13 residue identity with the transmembrane homolog of murine leukemia virus. A tridecapeptide Glu-Val-Val-Leu-Gln-Asn-Arg-Arg-Gly-Leu-Asp-Leu-Leu corresponding to this region was chemically synthesized and antibody to the peptide was raised(More)
Two glycosylated proteins designated gp90 and gp20 were purified from replication-competent avian reticuloendotheliosis associated virus (REV-A). The N-terminal sequences of gp90 and gp20 were determined and found to match the REV-A-env-gene sequence. The alignments of the determined amino acid sequences with the predicted sequence indicate that gp20 and(More)
Loss of CD4(+) T cells in the gut is necessary but not sufficient to cause AIDS in animal models, raising the possibility that a differential loss of CD4(+) T-cell subtypes may be important. We found that CD4(+) T cells that produce interleukin (IL)-17, a recently identified lineage of effector CD4(+) T-helper cells, are infected by SIV(mac251)in vitro and(More)
A search for variant endogenous cat viruses led to a novel isolate. Although the major envelope glycoprotein of this virus was similar in size to that of an RD-114-like virus that was coisolated, it was unrelated to RD-114 or feline leukemia virus by immunological and biological criteria. This degree of dissimilarity suggests a different evolutionary(More)