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Adaptive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses have been associated with control of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) replication. Here, we have designed a study with Indian rhesus macaques to more directly assess the role of CD8 SIV-specific responses in control of viral replication. Macaques were immunized with a DNA(More)
T cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in the containment of HIV-1 replication. Therefore, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 should be able to elicit high frequencies of virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The highly attenuated poxvirus-based vaccine candidate, NYVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env (NYVAC-SIV-gpe), has been shown to induce and/or(More)
The identification of several simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIV(mac251)) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes recognized by CD8(+) T cells of infected rhesus macaques carrying the Mamu-A*01 molecule and the use of peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetrameric complexes enable the study of the frequency, breadth, functionality, and distribution of(More)
Increased activity of IDO, which catalyzes the degradation of Trp into kynurenine (Kyn), is observed during HIV/SIV infection, and it may contribute to the persistence of HIV/SIV by suppressing antiviral T cell responses. We administered the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-d-tryptophan (d-1mT) for 13 days to SIV-infected rhesus macaques receiving antiretroviral(More)
The loss of CD4(+) T cells and the impairment of CD8(+) T cell function in HIV infection suggest that pharmacological treatment with IL-7 and IL-15, cytokines that increase the homeostatic proliferation of T cells and improve effector function, may be beneficial. However, these cytokines could also have a detrimental effect in HIV-1-infected individuals,(More)
An HIV-1 vaccine able to induce broad CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses may provide long-term control of viral replication. In this study we directly assess the relative benefit of immunization with vaccines expressing three structural Ags (Gag, Pol, and Env), three early regulatory proteins (Rev, Tat, and Nef), or a complex vaccine expressing all six Ags. The(More)
The smallpox vaccine Dryvax, a live vaccinia virus (VACV), protects against smallpox and monkeypox, but is contraindicated in immunocompromised individuals. Because Abs to VACV mediate protection, a live virus vaccine could be substituted by a safe subunit protein-based vaccine able to induce a protective Ab response. We immunized rhesus macaques with(More)
OBJECTIVES We have analysed the association between different parameters of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS Review of hospital database records between 1978 and 2003 revealed six SLE patients with RTA. Correlations and comparisons were done by Spearman rank(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that traffic to lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In this study, we used Gag-specific tetramer staining to investigate the frequency of CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood and the central nervous system of Mamu-A*01-positive SIV-infected(More)