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Adhesion of circulating prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the microvascular endothelium is a critical step during cancer metastasis. To study PCa cell rolling and adhesion behavior, we developed a dynamic flow-based microtube system to mimic the microvascular environment. We found that PCa cell rolling capacity is mediated by E-selectin and can be enhanced by(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Androgen effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain controversial and androgen ablation therapy to treat HCC also leads to inconsistent results. Here we examine androgen receptor (AR) roles in hepatocarcinogenesis using mice lacking AR in hepatocytes. METHODS By using the Cre-Lox conditional knockout mice model injected with(More)
Smad proteins have been demonstrated to be key components in the transforming growth factor beta signaling cascade. Here we demonstrate that Smad4, together with Smad3, can interact with the androgen receptor (AR) in the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains, which may result in the modulation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transactivation.(More)
Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in bladder cancer (BCa) development. Our early studies found AR knock-out mice (with few androgens and deleted AR) failed to develop BCa, yet 50% of castrated mice (with few androgens and existing AR) still developed BCa in an N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) carcinogen-induced BCa mouse model,(More)
INTRODUCTION Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are known as oncogene driver mutations and with EGFR mutations exhibit good response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib. Some studies have shown that activation of estrogen and estrogen receptor α or β (ERα/β) promote adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between the two(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy using a gene gun or direct injection for the transfer of human preproenkephalin (PPE) plasmid cDNA using a capsaicin-induced bladder pain model in rats. Opioid peptides play an essential role in the modulation of micturition reflex and control of inflammatory pain. PPE is one such precursor molecule. (More)
Gender disparity has long been considered as a key to fully understand hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. At the same time, immunotherapy related to IL12 still need more investigation before being applied in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the androgen receptor (AR) on natural killer (NK) cell-related(More)
Sex hormone receptors, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs) including both ERα and ERβ, mediate the actions of sex hormones. In this study, we aimed to evaluate sex hormone receptors expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUTUCs) of ureter and renal pelvis with different tumor stages and grades as well as their possible(More)
UNLABELLED Early studies demonstrated that whole-body androgen receptor (AR)-knockout mice with hypogonadism exhibit insulin resistance. However, details about the mechanisms underlying how androgen/AR signaling regulates insulin sensitivity in individual organs remain unclear. We therefore generated hepatic AR-knockout (H-AR(-/y)) mice and found that male(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatitis and carcinogen-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with serum androgen concentration. However, how androgen or the androgen receptor (AR) contributes to HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. We found that hepatic AR promotes HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in HBV transgenic mice that(More)