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Sex hormone receptors, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptors (ERs) including both ERα and ERβ, mediate the actions of sex hormones. In this study, we aimed to evaluate sex hormone receptors expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUTUCs) of ureter and renal pelvis with different tumor stages and grades as well as their possible(More)
UNLABELLED Early studies demonstrated that whole-body androgen receptor (AR)-knockout mice with hypogonadism exhibit insulin resistance. However, details about the mechanisms underlying how androgen/AR signaling regulates insulin sensitivity in individual organs remain unclear. We therefore generated hepatic AR-knockout (H-AR(-/y)) mice and found that male(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatitis and carcinogen-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with serum androgen concentration. However, how androgen or the androgen receptor (AR) contributes to HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. We found that hepatic AR promotes HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in HBV transgenic mice that(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Androgen effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain controversial and androgen ablation therapy to treat HCC also leads to inconsistent results. Here we examine androgen receptor (AR) roles in hepatocarcinogenesis using mice lacking AR in hepatocytes. METHODS By using the Cre-Lox conditional knockout mice model injected with(More)
Smad proteins have been demonstrated to be key components in the transforming growth factor beta signaling cascade. Here we demonstrate that Smad4, together with Smad3, can interact with the androgen receptor (AR) in the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains, which may result in the modulation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR transactivation.(More)
UNLABELLED Early reports suggested androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals promote hepatocarcinogenesis. However, all antiandrogen clinical trials failed in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without reasonable explanations. We examined AR functions in HCC cancer metastasis in this study. We examined hepatic AR roles in HCC metastasis by comparing(More)
UNLABELLED Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been considered as an alternative therapy, replacing liver transplantation in clinical trials, to treat liver cirrhosis, an irreversible disease that may eventually lead to liver cancer development. However, low survival rate of the BM-MSCs leading to unsatisfactory efficacy(More)
Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUTUCs) represent relatively uncommon yet devastating tumors that affect more males than females. However, the correlation between gender difference and disease progression remains unclear. Androgen and the androgen receptor (AR) were previously hypothesized to account for the gender difference in the incidence of(More)
Adhesion of circulating prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the microvascular endothelium is a critical step during cancer metastasis. To study PCa cell rolling and adhesion behavior, we developed a dynamic flow-based microtube system to mimic the microvascular environment. We found that PCa cell rolling capacity is mediated by E-selectin and can be enhanced by(More)
Resistance of cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) to chemotherapy can lead to cancer relapse. Ovarian teratocarcinoma (OVTC) arises from germ cells and comprises pluripotent cells that can be used to study cancer cell stemness. In this study, we evaluated whether microRNA-21 (miR-21) promotes ovarian teratocarcinoma by maintaining cancer stem/progenitor(More)