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Tumour metastasis suppressors are inhibitors of metastasis but their mechanisms of action are generally not understood. We previously showed that the suppressor Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) inhibits breast tumour metastasis in part via let-7. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach combining statistical analysis of breast tumour gene expression(More)
ERK7 is a unique member of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subfamily of MAP kinases. Although ERK7 shares a TEY motif in the activation loop of the kinase, it displays constitutive activation, nuclear localization, and growth inhibitory properties that are regulated by its C-terminal domain. Because ERK7 is expressed at low levels compared(More)
Protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) has been implicated in cancer, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that PKCalpha promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN) by a feed-forward network leading to cell cycle deregulation. PKCalpha inhibitors decrease proliferation in SCCHN cell lines and xenografted tumors. PKCalpha inhibition or(More)
The number of targeted small molecules being developed in oncology is increasing rapidly. Many of these are designed to inhibit multiple kinases, and thus the mechanisms of responsiveness and predictive biomarkers can be difficult to discern. In fact, with few exceptions, multi-kinase inhibitors are developed with limited mechanism-based patient selection.(More)
The phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is highly dysregulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). While inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT pathway are being developed in cancer, their efficacy does not appear to be related to the presence of mutations or amplification in pathway genes. The PI3K pathway is a major regulator of(More)
BACKGROUND Rapamycin is an mTOR inhibitor with preclinical efficacy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). However, mTOR inhibitors also increase Akt activity in SCCHN cell lines, which would promote survival and oncogenesis. Enzastaurin is an AGC kinase inhibitor with nanomolar inhibitory concentrations for Akt and protein kinase C (PKC).(More)
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin, insulinase; EC, a thiol metalloendopeptidase, is involved in intracellular degradation of insulin, thereby inhibiting its translocation and accumulation to the nucleus. Recently, protein expression of IDE has been demonstrated in the epithelial ducts of normal breast and breast cancer tissue. Utilizing(More)
Insulin is a hormone crucial to metabolism and an essential growth factor for normal and neoplastic tissues. We have now determined insulin in extracts of 23 primary breast cancer specimens and of non-neoplastic breast tissues by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Remarkably, insulin was measured only in grade 3 tumors, whereas grade 2 carcinomas and the(More)
Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), a zinc metalloprotease, can specifically recognize and degrade insulin, as well as several amyloidogenic peptides such as amyloid beta (Abeta) and amylin. The disruption of IDE function in rodents leads to glucose intolerance and cerebral Abeta accumulation, hallmarks of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, respectively.(More)