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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process important for cell fate determination. Fibroblasts, a product of EMT, can be reset into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via exogenous transcription factors but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that the generation of iPSCs from mouse fibroblasts requires a(More)
In this paper, we study the heterogeneous domain adaptation (HDA) problem, in which the data from the source domain and the target domain are represented by heterogeneous features with different dimensions. By introducing two different projection matrices, we first transform the data from two domains into a common subspace such that the similarity between(More)
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors. However, the low efficiency and slow kinetics of the reprogramming process have hampered progress with this technology. Here we report that a natural compound, vitamin C (Vc), enhances iPSC generation from both mouse and human somatic cells. Vc acts at least in(More)
Parasitic nematodes that cause elephantiasis and river blindness threaten hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. We have sequenced the approximately 90 megabase (Mb) genome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi and predict approximately 11,500 protein coding genes in 71 Mb of robustly assembled sequence. Comparative analysis with the(More)
The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is a selective RNA-binding protein implicated in regulating translation of its mRNA ligands. The absence of FMRP results in fragile X syndrome, one of the leading causes of inherited mental retardation. Delayed dendritic spine maturation was found in fragile X mental retardation patients as well as in Fmr1(More)
In many real-world face recognition scenarios, face images can hardly be aligned accurately due to complex appearance variations or low-quality images. To address this issue, we propose a new approach to extract robust face region descriptors. Specifically, we divide each image (resp. video) into several spatial blocks (resp. spatial-temporal volumes) and(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology appears to be a general strategy to generate pluripotent stem cells from any given mammalian species. So far, iPS cells have been reported for mouse, human, rat, and monkey. These four species have also established embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines that serve as the gold standard for pluripotency comparisons.(More)
Aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) are delivered to the ribosome as part of the ternary complex of aa-tRNA, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) study, at a resolution of approximately 9 A, showing that during the incorporation of the aa-tRNA into the 70S ribosome of Escherichia coli, the flexibility of aa-tRNA(More)
The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor family has a crucial role in rapid responses to stress and pathogens. We show that the NF-kappaB subunit RelB is functionally associated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and mediates transcription of chemokines such as IL-8 via activation of AhR and protein kinase A. RelB physically(More)
Present practices for reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells involve simultaneous introduction of reprogramming factors. Here we report that a sequential introduction protocol (Oct4-Klf4 first, then c-Myc and finally Sox2) outperforms the simultaneous one. Surprisingly, the sequential protocol activates an early(More)