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DEA (data envelopment analysis) is a non-parametric technique for measuring and evaluating the relative efficiencies of a set of decision-making units (DMUs) in terms of a set of common inputs and outputs. Traditionally, the data of inputs and outputs are assumed to be measured with precision, i.e., the coefficients of DEA models are crisp value. However,(More)
This study explored the effects of online academic help-seeking (OAHS) and flipped learning (FL) on students’ development of involvement, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning. A quasi-experiment was conducted to investigate whether students’ involvement, self-efficacy, and self-directed learning increases over time with intervention by OAHS, FL, and(More)
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